The impact of technologization in the region on gendered occupational aspirations and career choices for STEM and health professions
1Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung (BIBB), Germany; 2Research Center for Education and the Labour Market (ROA), Netherlands; 3Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories (LIfBi), Germany
Occupational gender segregation shows to be particularly persistent within vocational education and training (VET) occupations. In our study we focus on occupational aspirations and career choices of young men and women by contrasting two highly segregated fields of work: STEM professions (predominantly male), and health professions (predominantly female).
Research on gender-specific occupational aspirations focused either on individual context, such as preferences or gender role attitudes (e.g., Chesters, 2021; Ochsenfeld, 2016), or on overall conditions in the region, such as employment or training prospects (e.g., Glauser & Becker, 2016; Malin & Jacob, 2019). However, the role of technology in a region as a crucial driver of labor market changes has so far received little attention. Within the VET system an increasing use of technology through computerization and digitization offers new opportunities, but also challenges e.g., by substituting and complementing tasks (e.g., Autor et al., 2003).
Our research question reads: Does the regional level of technologization differentially impact occupational aspirations and career choices for men and women comparing STEM and health professions? Thus, we aim to investigate if regional technology intensity and innovation potential (e.g., measured as regional share of STEM employees (male/female), patent registrations, or technology applications in the region) influence occupational aspirations, e.g., by increasing/decreasing the attractiveness of STEM professions for women. We further seek to analyze how regional impacts on gendered occupational aspirations are transferred into gendered career choices.
By using data from Starting Cohort 3 and 4 of the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), we can track young adults over nine years from 2010/11 through 2018/19. We are adding regional data from various administrative sources on regional technologization to the NEPS. First results suggest that women in regions with a low degree of technology have relatively higher aspirations for STEM occupations, supporting our central assumption about gender-differential impacts.
Unintended Consequences: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Companies’ Provision of Training
ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Markets are very efficient in matching workers to firms. This mechanism is also used to match dual VET students with their training firms in most countries. One exception is Serbia, because they put more value in having equity among the student-firm matches.
This study analyses whether distributing dual VET students according to students’ firm preferences is indeed more beneficial for students. The crux is that firms’ decision to train might be influenced by the distribution mechanism in place. There are two potential effects which we elaborate in a theoretical framework based on game theoretical principals. On the one side firms might be reluctant to train when they experience to get weak students because they cannot benefit very much from them. Thus, the firms provide less training positions than they would otherwise, decreasing the number of training positions for students. On the other firms might increase their number of dual VET positions in order to get matched with at least one good student, which they will try to retain after the training. Thus, firms provide more training positions than they would otherwise, increasing the number of trained students.
Our dataset consist of Serbian survey data on roughly 130 firms in the years 2018-2021. The dataset includes information on the satisfaction of firms with their students, the number of VET positions the firms offer, some firm characteristics, the productivity of students and their time to reach the productivity of a skilled worker.
Our preliminary results show that the quality of students indeed influences the firms’ provision of training.
We contribute to the literature by using a game theoretical approach on the training provision of firms. This is important because different policies might be more or less successful in engaging employers to provide training positions, which in the end affects students.
Vocational education vs the general education: For the same job "customer advisors in French and Mexican banks".
Université de Bourgogne, France
The training-employment relationship is part of long-term dynamics, that explain, among other things, recruitment on the job market or the evolution of a training programs offer.
Based on a theoretical typology of training regimes from the literature, the thesis seeks to understand how the different actors in training and employment construct mechanisms of collaboration between the education and production systems.
The purpose of this thesis is to understand how training and employment are regulated in Mexico and France for the same sector and the same profession (bank client advisers).
Two methods of analysis, quantitative and qualitative, were used to answer the research questions. The quantitative section provides a general framework of the profiles and skills required by bank employers for a "customer advisor" position in both countries. We use the webscraping technique to create the database from the job advertisement website Indeed.com.
The qualitative analysis, based on interviews with training managers, allows for an understanding of the student selection process, the construction of the study program, the intensity of the relationship between the bank and the university, as well as the diversity of opinions regarding the different practices and skills that facilitate the insertion of graduates in the labor market. Our results show that the training-employment relationship is stronger in France. However, the profile of the graduates recruited is mostly at the bachelor's level and the interest in soft skills is similar in both countries, while the economies, the characteristics of the banking sector and even the training offer, are differ widely.
Identification of Relevant Indicators for Adaptive and Personalized Workplace Learning Environments
1University of Mannheim, Germany; 2Curtin University, Australia
Advances in educational technology and artificial intelligence offer benefits for implementing adaptive and personalized workplace learning environments (APWLE). Vast amounts of educational data can provide useful insights into learning behavior and can be leveraged to adapt the learning environment to individual needs and constantly changing work requirements. Yet, the identification of reliable indicators for supporting learning processes and implementing trusted APWLE remains a major challenge. Findings from previous research show that learning processes and outcomes are affected by the learning context (i.e., an individual’s internal and external learning resources and conditions). However, it remains unclear which specific indicators of the learning context (e.g., goal orientation, learning strategies, daytime) are most relevant when implementing APWLE. Thus, the aim of this research was to compare the effect sizes of different indicators of the learning context and to identify indicators that are strongly associated with learning processes and outcomes. Following an expert validation and prioritization from a list of 332 indicators, we focused on the following seven indicators of the learning context: age, goal orientation, learning strategies, course length, daytime, receiving feedback, and feedback type. We deployed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted systematic review and compared the results of 74 studies. All seven indicators considered in our analyses have been associated with learning processes and outcomes in the included studies. The strongest evidence could be detected for goal orientation (|r| ≤ .63, k = 24 studies) and feedback type (|r| ≤ .56, k = 6 studies). We conclude that indicators of the learning context––especially goal orientation and feedback type—can provide benefits when implementing APWLE. Future research should investigate how these indicators can be implemented in digital workplace learning settings as well as design and evaluate specific learning interventions based on these indicators.
Identification of new qualifications and competences (NQCs) through systematic monitoring of VET-relevant indicators
Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB), Germany
The requirements for skilled workers are constantly changing – especially in terms of current technological, ecological and societal transformations. In order to strengthen VET for the next generation, it is important to identify the need for NQCs at a very early stage so that these requirements can be implemented in existing training regulations or new future-oriented occupations.
Accordingly, this research project aims to identify relevant indicators for a systematic monitoring of training and further education occupations which allows an early adaptation of skill requirements at the occupational level.
In a multi-layered methodological procedure, indicators are to be determined both exploratively and inductively, which, in the sense of Ansoff's theory (1975) of weak signals, allow changes to be recognized at an early stage. This includes a qualitative and quantitative analysis of training directives as well as a retrospective examination of selected cases to identify and validate relevant indicators. The research furthermore draws on existing analytical instruments for early detection in VET as well as already proven indicator sets – selectively completed by further surveys – and seeks to integrate them in an overall framework. This process will be completed by expert discussions with specialists from science and practice. Finally, the identified set of indicators will be examined in a pilot phase monitoring special occupations to evaluate both relevance and usability for a systematic monitoring.
Initial analysis underline the effect of a declining participation in certain VET and higher VET occupations as trigger for adjustments in VET training regulations. Further analyses aim to identify interactions with various factors to rule out erroneous conclusions as well as to identify further triggers for NQCs at an early stage.