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Paper Session 3A: Training conditions and learning processes
10:30am - 12:00pm
A Latent Transition Analysis Investigating the Stability, Predictors, and Outcomes of Resource Profiles during Apprenticeships
Fabienne LÜTHI1, Barbara E. STALDER2
1Swiss Federal University for Vocational Education and Training, Switzerland; 2Bern University of Teacher Education
Resources are important factors of the situation and the self, that are functional in the context of apprenticeships to reach (learning) goals, to stimulate learning ( Powers & Watt, 2021), and to fare better in the career (Stalder & Lüthi, 2020). The study jointly analyses situational and personal resources in initial VET in a person-centered, longitudinal perspective. Grounded on conservation of resources theory, this approach makes it possible to identify a core set of the most common situational profiles conducive for learning in the workplace and at school during the apprenticeship and, to evaluate their stability over time. Additionally, the role of core self-evaluations (CSE) regarding stability or change of profile membership was integrated into the model. Finally, implications of the resource profiles in relation to apprenticeship satisfaction and occupational commitment were investigated.
Our data came from the Swiss longitudinal study (TREE). The sample consisted of 991 apprentices enrolled in the second and third year of apprenticeship. We applied latent profile (LPA) and latent transition analyses (LTA).
LPA revealed four distinctive, homogenous profiles that differed in the overall level of resources in the workplace and at school and variations of resources in either the workplace or school. LTA indicated that profiles remained generally identical and stable over the one-year course of the study. CSE predicted stability or change of situational resource profiles’ membership across time, meaning that individuals with high CSE were more likely to remain in favourable resource profiles or to improve their situation changing into even better situations, compared to apprentices with lower levels of CSE.
Identifying apprentices with different resource profiles and the nature of transitions between these profiles across time have implications for educational stakeholders and employers to implement tailored interventions and educational practices which aim to provide learners with resources conducive to learning.
How does COVID-19 affects learning of apprentices in the workplace training and classroom education?
Thomas Bolli, Katherine Caves, Filippo Pusterla, Ladina Rageth, Ursula Renold, Aranya Sritharan, Morlet Guillaume Maxence Augusti
ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Since April 2020, the ApprenticeshipPulse project surveys Swiss companies every month regarding the current situation of dual vocational education and training (VET) students and their training companies. The report uses this data to analyse how strongly COVID-19 has affected competences of dual VET students and how important different channels are for this effect. The analysis shows that COVID-19 affects competences acquired in workplace training, inter-industry courses and classroom education through several channels. These channels affect competence acquisition and prevent dual VET students from catching up on lost content. The activity of dual VET students represents the main channel. Particularly receiving homework, being in home-office or receiving no workplace training hamper competence acquisition compared to workplace training with hygiene conditions. However, quarantine and the intensity of necessary hygiene conditions also decrease competence acquisition.
Current working and production conditions in the Swiss bricklaying trade and their influence on in-company training conditions from the perspective of apprentices
Kerstin DUEMMLER, Alexandra Felder, Isabelle Caprani
The possibility for vocational learning at the workplace depends among other on the learning opportunities that work contexts provide. Learning environments are more expansive rather than restrictive if learners can fully participate in the activities of a work community and if learners and trainers are recognized in their roles allowing them to engage in a learning (and not only a working) process. However, the learning environment that firms can provide also depends on the wider context like sectoral and industry-specific developments. Using the example of the Swiss bricklaying apprenticeship, the presentation explores how current structural production and working conditions within the Swiss construction industry have a negative influence on apprentices training conditions. Based on qualitative interviews with apprentices, the influence of current industry-typical developments on training conditions in medium-sized and large construction companies are examined: Increasing stress and profitability pressure on construction sites limit the access to challenging activities for apprentices, the possibility for guidance from colleagues or supervisors and hinder the establishment of an error culture. Moreover, the dominance of modern construction methods on large construction sites and a trend towards piecework reduce learning opportunities for certain traditional construction techniques. The results nuance previous findings on the influence of company size on training quality, according to which it is easier for larger companies, due to their organizational structure, to keep apprentices to some extent out of the production process in favor of their training. The results presented for the Swiss bricklaying occupation point to conditions specific to the construction industry.
Innovation in the School System
Senior PhD Student at the Sigmund Freud University Vienna, Austria
In contrast to the market economy, in which companies are required to constantly develop - innovations in the education system do not seem to be systemically anchored at first glance. The social innovations take place - less perceived by the public – at all levels of the education system: on the initiative of the school administration, in the organizational environment of the school as well as in the teaching of teachers. This paper focuses on the emergence and diffusion of innovations that spring directly from the daily work of schools. Current school innovation research focuses on issues of governance, the top-down renewals of the school system. Less attention has been paid to initiatives that originated directly in schools from the bottom up and subsequently spread throughout the educational system. In addition, the preconditions for innovative developments often remain in the dark, even for those who are responsible. The initiation, process and diffusion of these bottom-up innovations with an impact on the school system are the focus of this paper, which draws on current research on social innovations in society. To this end, typical school-based innovation projects (innovation cases) are selected and contrasted in a comparative case study on the basis of possible characteristics that have an impact on success. In this context, semi-structured interviews with experts and innovators will be conducted and qualitatively evaluated, con- ditions of emergence will be ascertained and dissemination paths will be systematically traced. The qualitative results will be triangulated with a final quantitative survey of teachers and learners from the relevant school areas. The aim of the work is to systematise the precon- ditions for successful innovation projects that have started at VET-schools and have gained significance in the Austrian vocational education system.