Parallel session - G.4 Digital Education Design. Evaluation Approaches, Tools And Techniques
G.4. Digital Education Design. Evaluation Approaches, Tools and Techniques
CREATING MEANINGFUL LEARNING PATHS WITH THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY
This proof-of-concept study investigates on the use of technology in the process of personalized learning. The objective is to investigate the potential of technology in the process of personalization to improve inclusion and overcoming gaps.
According to the literature on the subject most learning technologies lack impact and educators often do the same thing they have done in the analog classroom, only with more digital devices. “... adding 21st-century technologies to 20th-century teaching practices will just dilute the effectiveness of teaching.” (OECD, 2015). Educators need better resources in order to create technology-based learning environments in which students and teachers use digital tools to do things they couldn’t do in analog learning spaces. Several conceptual models were developed to support the integration of technology in the classroom, but often, like for example the TPACK framework, they suffer from the lack of an implementation protocol (Mouza & Karchmer-Klein, 2013; Chai et al., 2016). To fill this gap McLeod and Graber (2018) developed a technology enriched lesson unit protocol, the 4Shifts Protocol. The protocol captures the potential of the different models and a focus on 4 main areas: deeper thinking and learning, authentic work, student agency and personalization and technology infusion.
Through a mixed method approach (Trinchero & Robasto, 2019), the research investigates perceptions of teachers about potential of technologies for the customization of learning pathways. For this activity an Italian high-technology middle school (Apple Distinguished School qualification for the digital training of its teachers) with a large heritage of technological resources was chosen. The teachers were involved in a research-training activity focused on teaching practices and the design of personalized activities. During the webinars, though several online surveys data was collected to investigating on the use of technology in the teaching practices in class. The analysis of this data builds the background for the research activity based on teacher training and the process of rethinking and redesigning the pedagogical approaches.
For the process of co-design with the experimental-school teachers, an Italian version of the 4Shifts protocol was applied to start a process of critical interrogation about the use of technologies in the learning activities. Objective was to design feasible learning scenarios that support deep learning activities to be able to maximize personalization paths thanks to the facilitating context of technological support.
Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2016). A review of the quantitative measures of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). In M. C. Herring, M. J. Koehler, & P. Mishra (Eds.), Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for Educators, 2nd Edition (pp.87-106). London, Routledge.
McLeod, S., & Graber, J. (2018) Harnessing Technology for Deeper Learning. Perfect Paperback
Mouza, C., & Karchmer-Klein, R. (2013). Promoting and assessing pre-service teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in the context of case development. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 48(2), 127-152.
OECD (2015), Students, Computers and Learning: Making the Connection, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264239555-en.
Trinchero R.,& Robastro, D. (2019) Mixed Methods nella ricerca educativa, Mondadori Università
MIGRANT LITER@CY: AN EUROPEAN PROJECT ON DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP AND NEW MEDIA LITERACY FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF MIGRANTS
Università di Bologna - Dip. di Scienze dell'Educazione, Italia
The “Migrant Liter@cies - Innovative practices in the teaching of literacy with the use of ICT and digital literacy to migrant adults project” took place from September 2017 to September 2020, and united nine institutions from eight different European countries [Italy (coordinator), Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and Spain), which face the same diversity and complexity of migration representative for Europe.
In the year 2015 more than one million people (asylum seekers and refugees) arrived in Europe – with Germany, Italy and Belgium under the main receiving countries. (Rapporto sulla protezione internazionale in Italia 2016, Caritas and UNHCR). The diversity in Europe will continue to increase in the future and there is a real need to combat all forms of intolerance and social exclusion affecting both European citizens and migrants, in particular those newly arrived. Language learning is an inevitable step towards integration, as well as the acquisition of digital skills for the integration in our high digitalized societies. In general, ICTs constitute an important resource for employability and integration of immigrants: “As regards newly arrived migrants, it is suggested that digital literacy courses should be part of integration courses” and “go hand-in-hand with language learning courses, including e-learning tools, as knowledge of the host country language is a key driver for social, economic and digital integration.” (EU Job Science Policy Report 93966, page 6)
The project was centred on the research and development of innovative practices in the use of ICT to promote digital inclusion and empowerment in the effective teaching of Literacy to migrant adults, by testing and implementing innovative practices in the field, using participatory approaches and through the development of guidelines that are usable and useful on a European scale.
An innovative part of the project, also, is the partnership that builds a link between Media Education Institutions and formal and non-formal Adult Education Institutions working with refugees, newly arrived migrants, asylum seekers, young adult migrants and migrant women. The project focuses on the integrated use of technology to support Migrants’ integration and on improving the flow and availability of digital resources to support teachers and learners, as well as on the critical and creative use of media, meaning the integration of digital literacy as a whole (Use, Understand, Create); and on the development of a new and innovative model to train educators working in the field of adult education: a MOOC, available in the webpage of the project and beyond the project end in English.
H. Jankins (2010), Culture partecipative e competenze digitali. Media Education per il XXI secolo, Milano: Guerini e Associati
G. Kress (2003), Literacy in the New Media Age, New York: Routledge
C. Redecker, A.Haché and C. Centeno (2010), Using Information and Communication Technologies to promote Education and Employment Opportunities for Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities, European Communities JRC Scientific and Technical Report ftp://ftp.jrc.es/pub/EURdoc/JRC57947_TN.pdf
GM. Schiesaro (2018), Migranti con lo smartphone. Il contributo dei nuovi media digitali al viaggio, all'accoglienza e all'integrazione dei migranti, Roma: VIS
TEACHING THROUGH MOTION DESIGN AND TRANSMEDIA STORYTELLING. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO A CRITICAL EVALUATION
1quot;Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy; 2University G. D’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy
The contribution delves into the research topic inaugurated at the beginning of the new century by Jan Kubasiewicz (2005), who defined motion design as a discipline worth to be explored in academic context. The use of animation in education is not new and academia has recognized its potential over the last twenty years (Kumar and Jamil 2016; Lowe and Schnotz, 2008; Xiao, 2013). The first experiments of pedagogical animations date back to the 1920s, and used the fluidity and dynamism of the medium to explain, clarify and visualize complex topics (e.g. Fleischer Brother's Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, 1923; Vdevolod Pudovkin's The Mechanics of the Human Brain,1926). Today there are many examples of animations used for teaching purposes and an increasing number of motion design artefacts produced as communication tools (Maselli and Panadisi, 2019).
In the last year, the covid 19 pandemic has contributed substantially to defining new teaching methods, to accelerating the learning and development of digital tools (Bates 2019, De Rossi and Petrucco, 2014, 2018; Shearer et al. 2020, Whittle et al. 2020 , Themelis and Sime 2020), and has intensified the use of videos as dynamic and captivating media closer to the younger students (Heller, 2008; Stone & Wahlin, 2018). We have witnessed a transition from direct to indirect learning methods and, quite often, a deferred experience through the use of recorded video-lectures and tutorials, taking up didactic approaches already tested by telematic universities and online courses (Arkorful and Abaidoo, 2014; Beetham and Sharpe, 2019). Students are therefore forced into a passive role, with very little space for interaction, collaboration and relationship (even emotional).
How can the pedagogical use of motion design be improved in this context? The long-term goal that we intend to achieve is to provide a new method for delivering distance learning through transmedia storytelling (Jenkins, 2006), trying to implement interactivity and participation. The margins for improvement are numerous, some totally unexplored, others already experimented in different fields, especially entertainment. Among the several directions of experimentation, the proposed contribution discusses the possibility of producing edutainment artefacts filled with interactive activities that ask young children to solve prestructured tasks and to experience multiple predesigned scenarios. This kind of interactivity in animated videos is gaining ground in recent years and generally associates a playful component in which the viewer participates in the character's choices (eg. Carmen Sandiego: To Steal or Not to Stea, 2020). Using transmedia storytelling for developing reflective learning (Dewey, 2019) can prove to be an interesting trial as it emphasizes the dynamism of the medium in building new learning experiences without removing the focus from the storytelling.
A critical approach to the most effective tools to validate the proposed method, process and product (Castoldi, 2012; Palumbo, 2001; Stame, 2016) is one of the evaluation objectives of the paper. The integrated use of the developed evaluation tools, ultimately, has to test students' learning status (Cortoni and Lo Presti, 2015; Demetrio, 2012 ) and the communication effectiveness of the used method and products (McDrury, Alterio, 2003).
THE WHATSAPP CARES YOU
1UNIVERSITA' BICOCCA DI MILANO, Italia; 2UNIVERSITA' STATALE DEGLI STUDI DI MILANO, Italia
The pandemic situation originated by Sars-Cov-2 caused the cancellation of many training and refresher courses for health workers. Indeed, in the first six months of 2020 the courses were stopped and struck off. In fact, all the human resources and money resources were destined for the care of patients and the many cases of Sars-Cov-2.
The thirteenth edition of our training course had to start in March 2020 and end in October 2020 and it was planned on 5 meetings of 4 hours each, once a month, except in July and August. The course proposed the reflection on care action of the health worker through the medical humanities approach, for example using a film to stimulate the reflection about how to communicate with patients. For instance, in the past edition we had explored some different arguments such as pain, resilience, mindfulness about health and stress in the daily work and the skills to communicate bad news.
Since we were going on the thirteenth edition, a Whatsapp group had been made since the last two editions for all participants. The digital group was functional to announce the meeting dates or to communicate some logistic aspects of the course such as the opening registration, arrangements on the food for the coffee break.
At the same time, during the pandemic situation it became an intimate and confident virtual environment, where every participant tried to help each other.
In fact, some collaborative relationships were born in the chat and some real help was realized. For example, a district doctor became a hospital-based doctor such as his chat colleagues. The WhatsApp group was able to become a real logistic and feeling support such as the letterature says (Grajales III, Sheps, Ho, Novak-Lauscher, & Eysenbach, 2014) a “peer-to-peer support, and fundraising for support groups, organizations, and individuals.” (Farmer, Bruckner Holt, Cook, & Hearing, 2009)
Accordingly, we decided to continue the 13 course of Medical Humanities using WhatsApp. Indeed, on the same date planned for the course we sent on chat the arguments and the method to reflect on work. During the emergency digital media have all taken on the valuable role of surrogate presence, allowing interactions that otherwise would not have taken place and all this is appreciable. Sharing stories to experience as a group, even if digital as a Whatsapp chat, can be an opportunity to listen to other points of view, a story told by another person.
TOM (Theory of Mind) also refers to the ability to "represent subjectivity". We found a way to give health workers the possibility to rethink one's own experience with others and to be helped to “reposition” the right distance, and accept this limited situation, but also we learned a lot about the human condition from the participants.
Keywords: Medical Humanities, Social Media education, Theory of Mind
VIDEO-LESSON: AUDIOVISUAL TOOLS AND METHODS FOR A VALID TEACHING
Università degli Studi di Udine, Italia
The recent pandemic phenomenon has involved the educational system, generating a sudden transition from face-to-face teaching to on-line learning. In order to fully understand what the use of video-lessons entails and draw a valid teaching also for the teaching of the future, in this contribution some aspects related to learning processes based on the knowledge of human cognitive architecture were initially explored. In particular, the processing limits of the working memory information were considered. Subsequently, having analyzed the tools available to the Video-Lessons and the methods of use and articulation of each language, an effective programming "format" was proposed for the construction of a valid model for future teaching.