Parallel session - H.11.2 Reinventing the curriculum and its practices
H.11. Reinventing the curriculum and its practices
GRAPHIC TOOLS FOR A VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE CURRICULUM
Università Iuav di Venezia, Italy
If we look at the variables involved in the definition of the integrated curriculum as proposed by Martini (2019), a visual representation can favor the use and development of this model.
A visual representation allows not only to observe the relationships between elements, but also to highlight their criticalities and inconsistencies, in particular when relationships and variables develop over several dimensions.
Through visual representation it is possible to arrange each variable not only in a three-dimensional graphic space, but also to use other variables or visual attributes – such as color, shape, texture etc. (Bertin, 2011) – to show further variables in a coherent manner, as long as there is an agreement between the variable represented and the visual attribute.
The integrated curriculum itself is defined by Martini (2019) through graphic analogies. For example: “Concepire i saperi come sistemi significa pensarli come aggregati di elementi in relazione dinamica tra loro, strutturati al loro interno secondo diversi livelli di organizzazione, in modo tale che ciascuno di questi livelli corrisponda ad un sovra- o ad un sotto-sistema organizzato allo stesso modo.” (Martini, 2019, p.6)
Analogies brings together two abstract systems (Duhem, 1954), visual analogies allow us to put together a synoptically observable artifact with a heuristic value.
A little further on, the author proposes to use the network as a representational model of the structure of knowledge. It should be noted that graphs are topological structures and already have an isomorphic graphical representation of the properties they represent.
The representation proposed by the author concerns the topology of the structure of knowledge, but it is possible to extend the representation to the other elements of the curriculum (identification of objectives, organization of time and space, the adoption of teaching methodologies, evaluation practices , the school-territory link and more), exploiting other graphic properties and integrating them with the graph of the knowledge structure.
The first investigative work that needs to be conducted is to verify the regularity of the analogical relationship between the elements of the curriculum and their corresponding graphic form or if it is even possible to have an isomorphism between the graphic form and the object of the representation.
Having verified the regularity of the analogy, it is necessary to develop a set of visual attributes that allow the variables of the integrated curriculum to be displayed consistently and systematically.
The next step is to apply the visualization to a series of cases to optimize the set of graphic tools for the representation of the various levels and verify their functionality in terms of designing the curriculum itself.
Bertin, J. (2011). Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps; Esri Press.
Duhem, P. M. M., Wiener, P. P., Vuillemin, J., & de Broglie, L. (1991). The Aim and Structure of
Physical Theory. Atheneum paperbacks. Princeton University Press.
Martini B., (2019), «Verso un modello di curricolo integrato», Pedagogia più Didattica. Teorie e pratiche educative, 5(2), pp. 1-8
ACTIVE LEARNING AND CURRICULUM ACROSS DISCIPLINES: A FIELD RESEARCH STUDY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
Active learning practices are rarely carried out in secondary school in a systematic way, even though the Riordino (Dpr 87, 88, 89 of 2010) exhorted teachers to implement active approaches. On the other hand, the reflection on the curriculum (Ajello & Pontecorvo 2002, Frabboni 2004, Baldacci 2006) and the gradual liberation from the idea of a national “programma” (Stenhouse 1977) made it clear that teachers should be the ones to select contents and teaching strategies, on the basis of the particular contexts and the epistemological structures of the disciplines and their connections.
This research study was carried out in collaboration with a secondary school, where some teachers were already promoting active learning strategies in core subjects, each one following their own teaching model. After an initial exploratory phase, the study moved on to a phase of collaborative research and research-training (Asquini 2018). It followed an increasingly process including most subject departments and covering all the teaching process (design, implementation, peer observation, documentation, reflection).
Researchers and teachers together defined a documentation model of the practice, from design to action, which encouraged reflection (during and after) and dissemination within and outside the school. Such a process was both research and professional development.
By comparing different teaching practices (in Maths, Physics, Science, Italian and Latin), the study highlighted some cross elements which were then consolidated in the expanded version of the study, where more classes and teachers were involved. These aspects concern the curriculum (from the selection criteria of the core ideas of the subjects to a discovery/problematic approach to the contents), the teaching design (course and lesson planning) and the methods (frequent use of the various forms of verbal interaction - conversational lesson, discussion, brainstorming -, group work, students' writing tasks). This interdisciplinary approach to practices, ultimately, seems to show a sort of mutual influence between subject areas: Language teaching was inspired by a "scientific" approach to the study of languages where linguistic "data" (words, sentences, texts) were observed, analyzed, classified and re-elaborated (Bertocchi 2015); at the same time, Science teaching developed particular attention to language – both “natural” language and more strictly “scientific” language (Fiorentini, 2018).
Ajello A. M., Pontecorvo C. (a cura di) (2002), Il curricolo. Teoria e pratica dell'innovazione, La Nuova Italia.
Baldacci M. (2006), Ripensare il curricolo: principi educativi e strategie didattiche, Carocci.
Bertocchi D. (2015), I fili di un discorso. Scritti di educazione linguistica, GISCEL Quaderni di Base n. 4, Aracne Editrice, pp. 283-289.
Fiorentini C. (2018), Rinnovare l'insegnamento delle scienze. Aspetti storici, epistemologici, psicologici, pedagogici e didattici, Aracne.
Frabboni F. (2002), Il curricolo, Editori Laterza.
Frabboni F. (2004), Il laboratorio, Editori Laterza.
Laurillard D. (2015), Insegnamento come scienza della progettazione. Costruire modelli pedagogici per apprendere con le tecnologie, Franco Angeli.
Nigris E., Negri S.C., Zuccoli F. (2018), Esperienza e didattica, Carocci Editori.
Asquini G. (a cura di) (2018), La Ricerca-Formazione: Temi, esperienze e prospettive, Franco Angeli, pp. 27-41.
Stenhouse L. (1977), Dalla scuola del programma alla scuola del curricolo, Armando.
EMOTIONAL CONTAINMENT AND COPING WITH EMERGENCIES CONTENTS IN THE CURRICULA OF INITIAL PRE SCHOOL TEACHER TRAINING IN CHILE
Universidad de Playa Ancha, Chile
The innovations and reforms to which the educational model in Chile has been subjected have sought to improve academic achievements in students; for which, efforts have been concentrated on improving initial teacher training. In particular in the case of pre-school education, the curricular bases for Early Childhood Education (2018) responded to different requirements and current emphasis on early childhood training, one of its purposes being to promote the comprehensive well-being of the girl and boy by creating healthy, protected and welcoming environments. In this context, it has been relevant to investigate the offer of academic training for the Preschool Education career in Chile in order to know how content related to the current context is addressed, particularly emotional containment and coping with massive emergencies. Along with analyzing the structural components of the curricular bases of Early Childhood Education and the curricular networks available to date, an in-depth interview was conducted with educators from 6 educational centers in the Fifth Region of Valparaíso, with the intention of contrasting theoretical approaches with the implementation of these policies.