EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND EFFECTS ON STUDENTS IN RURAL AREAS IN TURKEY AT THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
During the pandemic period, distance education has emerged as an important alternative to face-to-face teaching. In this study, the pandemic period education policies and activities in Turkey are examined. Also, the effects of these policies on the educational processes of students living in villages and rural areas are discussed. News on the official website of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education (MEB) used for the determination of Turkey's education policies . The policies during the pandemic period can be summarized chronologically as follows:
- Hygiene in schools
- International exit restrictions
- Restricting activities (meeting, social event, etc.)
- Interrupting education and training
- Continuing education through distance education
- Support activities for students
- Psychosocial support activities
- Expansion of training content (mobile applications, guides, counseling training, AI-based support applications, etc.)
- Pre-Primary schools were opened under private education institutions.
- All pre-primary schools and village schools opened.
- Primary education level schools and some classes were by stages opened.
Also, MEB prepare various educational facilities for students:
- Education Information Network (EBA) (Live courses, course resources, support services, applications)
- Scheduled course broadcasts on TRT EBA Television Channels
- Tablet distribution is approximately 500 thousand (included in the sim card and with the internet package)
- Mobile EBA mobile support vans
- Printed books (distributed free of charge to all students)
- Mobile Applications
- Different online resources
- Guidance guides
The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic was limited in rural areas than in cities. In the first period, education decisions were made centrally and in a holistic manner due to uncertainties. According to a research report conducted with people living in rural areas between September 2020 and January 2021, 51.5% of those living in villages stated that there was no fixed internet in their villages, 26% had electricity cuts in their villages and 45.3% of their children did not have access to online education . The report findings reveal a difference between cities and cities, especially in terms of information and communication technologies infrastructure. Considering the opportunities provided by the Ministry of National Education, educational content was delivered to the students living in villages (such as TV broadcasts, textbooks, mobile minibuses). However, problems with accessing online distance education applications, which feature particularly rich learning resources and where teachers and students come together in live classrooms, can lead to learning losses for students. However, in the same report, it was stated that students living in villages move more easily than those living in the city, they are less exposed to the visor effect and their daily lives are less affected . In this respect, it can be said that the negative psychological effects of the Covid-19 pandemic are less effective on students living in villages. Finally, after 2021, the policy change and the different evaluations of village and city schools are thought to be more appropriate in terms of the dynamics of both areas.
 T.C. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (2020–2021). Haberler. Retrieved March 15, 2021, from http://www.meb.gov.tr/meb_haberindex.php?dil=tr
 Rural Schools Transformation Network. (2021). Covid-19 Information Sharing Network Project Final Report. https://www.kodegisim.org/media/Covid-19_Information_Sharing_Network_Project_Final_Report.pdf
INCLUSION FOR NEETS. PERSPECTIVES AND PROPOSALS
Università di Roma Tre, Italia
Today, the Neets population is increasingly rising, and it includes people who live in very different conditions. Thus, it is difficult to hypothesize the right answers for needs which emerge (Agnoli, 2014). The Covid-19 crisis has further worsened the social and working exclusion of the young people, (Ilo, 2020) moreover it has pointed out the potentialities and weakness of the technology, both within training and working dimensions. This research, which is a part of a PRIN (Project of Relevant National Interest) named “RE-SERVES”, shows a pilot project involving some young Italian Neets from 18 to 29 years old which attend a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course). From the study of literature (Acosta, Otero, 2014; Barbas et al., 2017), it emerges there are little programmes of distance learning dedicated the Neets, nevertheless this kind of programmes are suggested as possible effective tools in order to empower young people who are not in education, training or employment. In fact, distance learning is flexible relating to the users’ needs and, moreover, the use of new digital applications fosters in itself the develop of digital skills, which nowadays are fundamental to be oriented in the contemporary society. Specifically, this paper aims to illustrate the findings of the interviews carried out to some stakeholders involved both in social and working inclusion projects for Neets and in labour policies. These results have been crucial for the implementation of the MOOC.Agnoli M.S. (2014) (a cura di), Generazioni sospese Percorsi di ricerca sui giovani Neet, Milano: Franco Angeli editore.Acosta, E. Otero, E.j.j.. (2014). Comparisons of young people´s educational aspirations on MOOC. Global Journals. 14. 25. Barbas M, Branco P. Loureiro A., Matos P. (2017), NEETin with ICT, Educational Research 5(4): 537-543Ilo and UNICEF (2020). International Labour Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund, ‘COVID-19 and Child Labour: A time of crisis, a time to act’, New York, 2020
MOBILE LEARNING IN BULGARIAN RURAL AREAS DURING COVID 19 PANDEMIC
South-West University, Bulgaria
Mobile learning is a technologically created environment for learning and communication, in which users themselves publish lessons, data, and their experience as well as communicate with each other. The published information can be in different forms: text, images, audio, and video recordings. Unlike traditional learning, learners of all ages are actively involved in a two-way process of posting and informing, because people can not only read, watch or listen but also share, comment, and discuss. Online platforms greatly facilitate and support mobile learning, as they connect individuals regardless of distances or situations that do not allow face-to-face learning, as is the case with Covid- 19.
This article aims to examine the state of mobile learning in rural Bulgarian areas, presenting the policy framework in which the education processes themselves take place, and also show the various platforms and software products that are the basis of mobile learning. In addition, a specific case is analyzed - the situation with Covid-19 and how the Bulgarian education system is being restructured in the direction of mobile learning under the influence of the new pandemic conditions. The research questions are: is there a place for mobile learning in Bulgarian education? What are the specifics of mobile learning in the Covid-19 situation? What is the quality of mobile learning?
The article is focused on showing that Covid-19 put Bulgarian education in a situation requiring quick and adequate solutions and actions aimed at total and universal mobile learning, which, however, are not accepted and evaluated in the same way by the participating social actors.
The methodology is based on qualitative methods, under the national project “Digital Media Literacy in the context of "Knowledge Society": state and challenges”, № КП–06–Н25/4, 2018, funded by National Science Fund – Bulgaria.
The main conclusion is that Covid-19 puts Bulgarian education in a situation that requires comprehensive and universal mobile learning, which is in line with the modern knowledge society.
Keywords: mobile learning, rural Bulgarian areas, digital literacy, Covid-19, education.
SCHOOL -TO-WORK TRANSITION IN ITALY AND ROMANIA: THE ROLE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM
1Research Institute for Quality of Life Romanian Academy, Romania; 2Parthenope University of Naples, Italy
Italy and Romania have some of the highest rates of NEETs in EU in recent years. It is a fact that this situation is a result of the interaction of individual, institutional and structural factors. One of these factors is the education system. The heterogeneity of NEETs is also given by their relationship with education: young people who left the education system early, young people who opted for short-term forms of education, others who have high levels of education.
The objective of this research is to examine the role of education in the trajectory of young people after leaving the education system and factors that influenced their exit from the educational system and their experiences as NEETs.
The data we will analyze are from the 2016 ad hoc module of Labour Force Survey „Young people on the labour market”. It gives us an image both on the educational path of the NEETs and on the first years after they left the education system. This survey has the advantage of including several factors that are considered in the literature determinants for the educational and professional path of a youth: socio-demographic characteristics (gender, level of education, degree of urbanization), family background (family size, level of education of parents) and characteristics of the educational system (organizing education by levels and specializations).
Through statistical comparative analysis we expect to get a more complete picture of the role that it plays in the success or failure of youth transition to the labor market the education system. The results of our research are able to support the exchange of best practices between countries, between institutions, between specialists.
IN TEAMS ... ONLY CONNECTED: RE-READ AND RE-SIGNIFY THE EXPERIENCE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE AT THE TIME OF COVID 19
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II - Centro di Ateneo Sinapsi, Italy
This contribution focuses on the educational experience of volunteers of the Civil Service, involved in a project called “Advocacy and inclusion of disabled university students”, from Centro di Ateneo Sinapsi operational sections. Target: 27 volunteers of the National Civil Service – gradueted in high school and university, average age about 25 – placed in different sections: disability, educational success, employability and anti-discrimination. The training has taken place in the “Laboratorio interattivo per la promozione dell’occupabilità (SPO)”, and planned some autobiographical-narrative tasks designed to self-assessment of skills and sources acquired by students in different learning contexts, official and informal. In particular, at the end of this training, there has been a dual objective: allow the partecipants to lead in a role of reconstruction, documentation and enhancement of their educational experiences, professional and of life, and due to the pandemic, restore the experience of the civil service. At the close of the year of the civil service, that has been projected and realized for the activities of employability, there has been also a training module who invites young people to reflect and understand consciously the final experience. The journey has been structured in 3 meetings: the first two for the execution of interviews in a group in order to reorganize the experience of the civil service based on the increment of transversal competences, the last one has been focused on a challenging experience that turned out to be different than it was expected. The current pandemic situation forced a radical change in the management of both meetings and civil service works, Microsoft Teams has been used for the provision of training activities. In the first rendez-vous volunteers have been asked to find a metaphor or a symbol to describe the experience of the civil service, to write the motivation and to share it with the group. After that, an activity to introduce the digital story telling has been proposed, leading to the realization of a digital portrait. In the second rendez-vous, digital portraits have been shared; finally, in the third we proceeded in a summary of the formative experience. The introduction of the digital story telling has been realized from different incipit: a self-describing narrative text, the preparation of a digital portrait trying to make it easier for young people to get involved in the experience of the civil service in personal events. At the end a review has been made for educational and volunteering activities. This contribution concludes with a reflection on the unexpected effects and new frontiers of recognizion and reconstruction of experiences of life and/or training. The partecipants, for solidarity and social benefits, have shared this purpose of the lab considering it useful for an inclusion of a future job; due to the assessment questionnaire it showed up that, despite the social distance, young people have appreciated this positive experience, percived it as a successful opportunity for highlight personal values and ideals; and awareness that lead them to future goals.