STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON FEEDBACK STRATEGIES ACTIVATED BY THE DIGITAL LEARNING ECOSYSTEM IN THE PANDEMICS
1University "d'Annunzio" Chieti - Pescara, Italy; 2University of Macerata, Italy
University didactics mediated through screens required a learning environments redesigning in their different dimensions (Vinatier, 2013): the epistemological aspects, the relational and the pragmatic ones. How can the setting of digital educational ecosystems (Laampere & coll., 2014) take responsibility for those dimensions? Has such ecosystem enabled to activation a feedback loop (Carless, 2019), set up like a process not only discursive and interactive between student and professor, but also reflexive and adaptative, namely as a structured and structuring dimension for schooling as well as for learning? The feedback loop has a generative value, it activates an inner process in the student (Nicols, 2018) through which students construct knowledge about their own ongoing activities and understanding, through their own evaluative acts. Students are the definitive source of all feedback as it is they who ultimately generate it and it is this that generates learning (Andrade, 2010). Furthermore feedback strategies favour the alignment (Rossi, 2016) between student and professor and the redesigning and the ongoing co-designing.
This paper would like to show the outcomes of a questionnaire administered to 274 students of 4 courses in the didactics of two Universities, aimed at verifying the impressions towards the educational ecosystem designed for the didactics in Covid-19 emergency. The student’s perception (Cecconi & coll., 2019) was collected through the questionnaire, structured in 9 questions opened with a semi-closed request, but also asking to clarify the reason of such an answer, through the positioning of “why” about:
1) the condition of separation between the professor and the students experienced along the lessons,
2) the activation of the educational relationship and the feedback, through technological tools
The collected data were analysed according to a qualitative approach, through the identification, by the post-codification, of homologous semantic fields manually identified. Linguistic occurrences were pre-emptively cleansed to isolate common and recursive conceptualisations among the different answers (Ferrari & Piccardi, 2010).
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Laanpere M., Pata K., Normak P., Põldoja, H.. (2014) “Pedagogy-driven design of digital learning ecosystems”. Computer Science and Information Systems, 11(1), 419-442.
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Rossi, P.G. (2016). “Alignment”. Education Sciences & Society, 6(2), 33-50.
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VISUAL FEEDBACK IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR AN ACTIVE LEARNING
Department of Education Studies "G. M. Bertin", University of Bologna, Italy
The scientific literature of recent years highlights how in the didactic field feedback is a key factor in the development of the learning process (Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Thurlins, Vermeulen, Voerman et al., 2012; Gan, & Hattie, 2014; Ajjawi et al., 2017; Rand, 2017). In particular, the paradigms referable to a socio-constructivist approach presuppose the development and monitoring of feedback throughout the entire learning path in order to support active learning processes (Barton et al., 2016; Henderson et. al., 2019). Specifically, for the cognitivist approach, the training or correction feedback represents for the teacher one of the main strategies at the service of the assessment of learning (Hattie 2009; Calvani 2014; Tacconi & Gentile 2017). This type of feedback, defined by Laurillard (2012), extrinsic feedback, focuses mainly on the inputs and takes the form of an evaluative comment that the student can follow to improve his performance compared to the expected results. However, the outputs produced by students through a continuous process of interaction with the teacher and with peers also represent an equally significant feedback. In fact, between input and output there is a close relationship as the output of a system depends on the nature and quality of the input. In this sense, feedback that, according to a socio-constructivist approach, is oriented towards learning and output, focuses on how students generate, produce meaning and use feedback for continuous improvement. Laurillard (2012) speaks in this regard of intrinsic feedback that does not require the instructive intervention of the teacher and is a natural consequence of the student's actions (Narciss 2008; Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2000, Pellerey 2014).
Several sector studies show how feedback processes are closely linked to the motivational dimension of learning (Murtagh, 2014; Fryer, & Bove 2016; Gan, Nang & Mu, 2018). With reference to the motivational dimension, the students' approach to disciplinary contents is more significant when information is provided through an integrated use of different visual languages (images, videos, diagrams, graphs, ...) (Stašák 2011; Raiyn, 2016; Cicalò 2016 ; Martínez-Arboleda 2018; Panciroli, Corazza, & Macauda, 2019). The production / use of an image promotes motivation in the student allowing him to activate cognitive and exploratory processes, categorization, memory, prediction, understanding, emotion and empathy. In this sense, the learning processes that develop through the construction of visual artifacts in digital environments take on particular importance (Rossi, Panciroli 2018; Panciroli, Macauda, 2019; Panciroli, Macauda, Corazza, 2020).
With reference to this theoretical framework, this contribution presents an experimentation carried out within a university training course, aimed at analyzing the impact of the visual dimension in digital environments on feedback management processes. Specifically, the students reinterpreted the contents of the lessons by setting up multimodal digital environments of visual nature, allowing the teacher to monitor the learning process and support the motivational dimension.
ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSITY DIDACTIC TRANSFORMATION DURING COVID-19: WHICH OPPORTUNITIES FOR INNOVATION?
University of Naples "Parthenope", Italy
The emergency from COVID-19 has forced the Italian Education System, including the university one, to transform its traditional training offer towards a "distance version” entirely delivered online through digital media. This research work focuses its attention on the university system and through a case study aims to investigate whether this forced didactic experimentation has turned into an opportunity for didactic innovation. The survey, through a mixed research methodology with a qualitative and quantitative approach, focuses on both the students’ and the teachers' perspectives. The results highlighted a number of benefits during the adoption of this new teaching approach in the university context for the two analyzed dimensions and, at the same time, they allowed to detect some critical issues on which to work. The research is proposed as an element of reflection for the didactic and pedagogical dimension in the context of new forms of knowledge transmission in formal training contexts.
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ICT AND TEACHERS: A PILOT PROJECT
Parthenope University, Naples, Italy, Italy
Le tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione (TIC) sono state davvero essenziali per sviluppare l'apprendimento degli studenti
e le competenze chiave, nell'ultimo anno caratterizzato dalla pandemia di covid19.
Gli insegnanti della scuola, hanno dovuto necessariamente ricalibrare ogni operazione educativa utilizzando le TIC,
sempre con l'obiettivo finale della comprensione degli studenti.
In questo contesto, quindi, l'obiettivo del lavoro è stato quello di indagare sull'uso delle ict, sulle possibili innovazioni
legate all'insegnamento con le ict e tutto sui feedback educativi che gli insegnanti hanno ottenuto utilizzando le ict.
In questa fase è stato importante considerare anche il difficile processo di riprogettazione educativa,
attuato dagli insegnanti. La metodologia utilizzata per questa ricerca è stata descrittiva,
dando un sondaggio sulle TIC a tutti gli insegnanti di una scuola media italiana.
Il sondaggio era in formato digitale. I risultati del campione erano diversi e eterogenei.
I risultati hanno confermato la necessità di una maggiore formazione sulle TIC per gli insegnanti delle scuole e la necessità di
delineare in modo costante le TIC nei processi di insegnamento e apprendimento.
THE USE OF DATA FOR THE EDUCATIONAL SUCCESS OF STUDENTS IN ONLINE UNIVERSITIES
Italian University Line, Italy
After Covid, online training was widely disseminated. This is also the case at university level. Telematic universities have had the advantage of being structured already to deal with this emergency and can be a valid model for observing how to make the course of study innovative and personalized.
Universities should use data regularly and systematically to identify high-risk students, target them with interventions, and evaluate those interventions’ effectiveness. (Von Hippel and Hofflinger, 2020).
To add these goals, we move from issues of access and content delivery to issues related to collaboration, personalization of learning experiences and participation of different stakeholders in forms of open education. (Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Hodgson, & McConnell, 2012).
Customizing feedback through student monitoring is important not only for observing how students learn and allowing teachers to understand the best path for students, but also in order to predict future students feedback and take action before a drop out occurs.
Timely and personalized feedback will allow teachers to adapt to students' expectations regarding the contents of the courses and the teaching material and improve student learning experience satisfaction (Mbatchou, Bouchet, Carron and Pernelle, 2018).
The aim of this contribution is to illustrate a type of monitoring and data collection of students of Bachelor’s degree and Master degree of the Italian University Line (IUL) on the Moodle LMS platform with the aim of provide feedback to students to improve their orientation and educational success.
The monitoring of students was carried out through several ways: Orientation Interviews, Path Tutors, Initial Student Data Collection, Platform Monitoring, Learning Analytics.
In this study, student monitoring will be done through:
(1) a Moodle built-in model called "Students at risk of dropping out" that predicts students who are at risk of non-completion (dropping out) of a Moodle course, based on low student engagement. (2) the acquisition of log files from Moodle LMS, (students access, downloads materials and interact with the teacher, tutor, and other students).
Students’ log files will be used for understanding learning behaviors and their impacts on academic results and predicting students’ grades and/or dropout (T. Agasisti, 2021), therefore they allow the teachers to oﬀer a personalized educational response tailored to students characteristics and needs.
P. T. Von Hippel and A. Hofflinger (2020). “The data revolution comes to higher education: identifying students at risk of dropout in Chile.” Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management.
Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L., Hodgson, V., & McConnell (2012).-editors- Exploring the Theory, Pedagogy and Practice of Networked Learning. London and New York: Springer.
(G. M. Mbatchou, F. Bouchet, T. Carron and P. Pernelle (2018). Proposing and evaluating a model of co-construction of the learning scenario by the learner. 15th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA 2018)
T. Agasisti (2021). “Learning Analytics for improving educational policies and practices: principles and examples”. Invited lecture at the V Seminar “I dati INVALSI: uno strumento per la ricerca e la didattica” 2021, February.
"CLASSI IN RETE". RETHINKING EDUCATION IN SMALL SCHOOLS. AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN ABRUZZO
1INDIRE, Italy; 2Università della Valle d’Aosta
The school today is organized according to a specific configuration dating back to the sixteenth century and definitively established during the nineteenth century, called by Vincent (1994) the “dominant forme scolaire”. However, there are other organizational forms developed above all in rural areas and typical of "small schools". Studies demonstrate how the adoption of network technology in teaching can better integrate remote students’ classroom (Hannum et al 2009) and out-of-school activities (Hawkes et al. 2002; Panizzon and Pegg 2007), but it requires a support action for the teacher preparation (Azano et al. 2019).
INDIRE , in collaboration with le Centre scolaire du Fleuve et des Lacs (Ministère de l’éducation et de l’enseignement supérieur du Quebec) IUL, USR Abruzzo and expert of Valle d’Aosta University, is engaged in experimenting innovative methods to help small schools teacher to overcome the limits deriving from remoteness (Mangione and Cannella, 2020). “Classi in rete” is a framework developed with the collaboration of École éloignée en Réseau (Allaire et al. 2009) based on classrooms as Knowledge Building Communities (Cacciamani and Messina, 2011).
Delocalized classes aim to design a common disciplinary path involving student groups in parallel in the same activities by adapting calendars, spaces and teacher roles. Teachers of delocalized classes share cooperative educational practices such as “pairs aidants”, “mentorat” or “delocalized equipe” by using Video conferencing and Knowledge Forum (KF) (Mangione and Pieri 2019). This study,aims to implement a hybrid model (combining online synchronous, asynchronous and face-to face activities) to work with classrooms as Knowledge Building communities, inspired to “Classi in rete” framework, and to analyse the propensity for change by small school teachers involved in the project. It explores the training and experimentation path that involved 12 Abruzzo small schools, 11 digital animators, 31 teachers, 6 observers (school principals). The path recalls MOOC-Eds (Clark, 2014; Kleiman, Wolf and Frye, 2015) space were digital animators and teachers able to think about the model, to identify application contexts and themes on which to build twinning between different schools and classes. In this space teachers able to reflect through the construction of "notes" in the KF and the participation in synchronous meetings with research group, receiving regulative feedback aimed at improving experiences in their classes.
The “propensity for change by small school teachers” is identified with reference to the concept of readiness for change, defined by Armenakis (1993) as related to the beliefs, attitudes and intentions of members of the organization with respect to the need for change and the organization's ability to successfully make such changes.Through the application of MESI battery (Moè, Pazzaglia and Friso 2010), and at the same time the qualitative analysis of the texts produced in the "reflection notes" of the KF and discussed in moments of synchronous video reflection between teachers and researchers (Mangione et al., 2017), it will be possible to understand if and how the participation in the “Classi in rete” path promotes a change in the Motivations, Emotions, Strategies and Teaching routines of the teachers involved.
CREATIVE PROCESSES IN MINECRAFT: THE EXPERIENCE OF FAILURE AND THE EMERGENCE OF AGENCY IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL.
1University of Foggia, Italy; 2University of Helsinki, Finland
The implementation of Virtual Worlds in the learning environment have become an emergent approach to learner-centered education in recent years, especially from the acquisition of the popular sandbox type video game Minecraft by Microsoft in 2014 and the related development of the game version specifically designed for education in a classroom setting Minecraft Education Edition in 2016. Research has shown how engaging in Minecraft enhances the acquisition of 21st Century Skills (Hewett, Zeng, & Pletcher, 2020) and learning in STEAM subject areas (Lane & al., 2017; Lilly, 2019). Minecraft is also suggested as a playful and useful tool to promote the creation of “learning spaces as affinity groups” (Dezuanni et al., 2015, p. 148) as well to provide the students’ participation and self-expression, even for learners with disabilities (Ringland et al., 2017). However, few studies have examined the impact of the automatic feedback generated by the game on the student’s actions in the virtual world and how students deal with failures in the creative process and overcome obstacles found while undertaking the open-ended tasks. To fill this gap, following the sociocultural investigation on the construction of students’ sense of agency (Kumpulainen et al., 2014), the current study explored the creative process of 40 students attending the 4th grade in an Italian primary school during the lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Before the spread of the pandemic, the teacher had designed an interdisciplinary collaborative educational activity in Minecraft Education. During the lockdown, the activity was re-designed in order to comply with the imposed restrictions. The teacher assigned an open-ended task inviting the students to use Minecraft at home, guiding the students by sharing video-tutorials and organizing virtual meetings. Before the end of the school year the students were invited to present their own virtual worlds to the researchers, who had the opportunity to ask questions to the participants who accepted the invitation. The video records of the presentations and interviews have been qualitatively analyzed in order to examine 1) the difficulties and feedbacks that the students describe as relevant for their creative activity in the virtual worlds; 2) the strategies of problem solving that the students describe in their narrative account of the creative process. Unpacking the dynamics of creation in the virtual worlds, our findings showed the emergence of the following dimensions in creating virtual worlds 1) the students' perseverance despite several difficulties encountered during the activity; 2) the students' help-seeking, collaboration and use of external resources for problem solving; 3) the combination of new ideas and previous experiences. The analysis allows to discuss how the online activity and the constant feedback received during the game contributed to generate several learning opportunities and in some cases triggered educationally relevant social interaction with peers. Finally, we discuss how the students expressed their sense of agency as elicited by the difficulties experienced during the creative process.