ADULT COMPETENCIES IN ITALY BETWEEN COMPANY’S RESPONSIBILITY AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHT TO TRAINING
INAPP (National Institute for Public Policy Analysis), Italy
The post-covid era will make the issue of adults up-skilling and re-skilling even more urgent: the digital turn in the so-called 4.0 industry process will require a diffuse and pervasive upgrading of skills and competencies of the workforce. In Italy, the structure of the industrial sector largely based on SMEs makes the recovery process in the post-Covid phase even more challenging.
The paper is structured into three sections. It first proposes a periodization of main policy developments in the field of continuing vocational training in Italy based on three key factors: a) universality /non-universality of beneficiaries; b) standardization /individualization of training opportunities; c) strong /weak impact on labour contracts. The main laws and financing instruments taken into account are: L. 236/93 for investment in corporate training, L. 53/2000, the Fondi Paritetici Interprofessionali, the European Social Fund and the relatively new Fondo Nuove Competenze. In addition, European policies have become increasingly relevant (Council of European Union, 2016).
Second, the paper presents an analysis of the Italian case, based on original quantitative data gathered in the context of several broad surveys on the working of the systems of continuing vocational training in Italy (Camera dei Deputati 2020; Inapp, forthcoming), carried out by the INAPP (Italian National Institute for Public Policy Analysis). The focus is on the main trends, compared – where appropriate – to the EU scenario. Specifically, the analysis highlights some crucial limits in relation to employer-provided vocational training. This kind of training generally results centered in both high-level roles and specialized and technical skills, that are functional to the needs of firms.
Third, based on the empirical evidence presented in section two, the paper proposes a reflection on the implications for social and labour-market dynamics, in terms of effective and widespread upskilling and reskilling processes. It argues that the system does not respond adequately to emerging needs in the recovery scenario and that the recognition of an individual right to training is also needed. In this light, the paper advocates for a revalorization of Law 53/2000 that foresees periods of leave to be on offer to workers for training purposes. This tool could effectively complement the training provision designed by firms and significantly improve the employability of workers. The individual right, particularly, could act on two crucial aspects: the all-pervasive spread of adequate competencies into the workforce, and - not to be underestimated – a significant extension of the range of skills including, more massively, digital and soft ones. This process might be complementary with some National Plans on adult competencies recently adopted by the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Education and the Regions.
Angotti R. (2017), Intangible Assets Survey, Inapp, Roma.
Camera dei Deputati (MLPS-INAPP-ANPAL) (2020), XIX Rapporto sulla formazione continua – Annualità 2017-2018.
Cedefop (2020), Empowering adults through upskilling and reskilling pathways. Volume 1: adult population with potential for upskilling and reskilling. Luxembourg
Council of European Union (2016), Recommendation of 19 December 2016 on Upskilling Pathways: New Opportunities for Adults (2016/C 484/01).
INAPP (forthcoming), Indagine sull'Offerta di formazione professionale (OFP).
INAPP (forthcoming), INDACO Imprese-CVTS
EDUCATIONAL (R)EVOLUTION. THE REALITY AND CHALLENGES OF LIFELONG LEARNING IN CATALONIA
1Universitat de Lleida, Spagna; 2Università Roma Tre, Italia
This experience focuses on adult education, especially in the non-formal field and with emphasis on actions addressed to people of immigrant origin. After explaining the Spanish educational system as an introduction, adult education is defined, contextualised in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia (Spain), and the different modalities that currently exist and the main organisations and entities that provide them are explained. Then, from the point of view of lifelong learning, vocational training for employment is explained, with emphasis on vocational certificates, as one of the tools for improving professional skills and achieving better socio-occupational integration, meeting the requirements of the labour market in the complex societies of the 21st century.
Then, we will start from two studies carried out by our research group "Social and Educational Analysis" (GR.ASE), the Project "Immigration and Adult Education: Dynamics of Integration and Exclusion", funded by the Cooperation Centre of the University of Lleida (Spain). And based on the Recercaixa project "Cultural diversity and equal opportunities at school", funded by the La Caixa Foundation, we explain the work carried out in primary schools in Catalonia with a high percentage of students of foreign origin and ethnic minorities, to improve the parenting skills and Catalan language skills of immigrant families and to promote their socio-educational inclusion.
We will mention two practical experiences of literacy: the "Literacy course in the African Association of Lleida and province", and "the project of Catalan classes for immigrant mothers", implemented in several schools with the support of volunteers.
Finally, due to the rapid and continuous changes that characterise contemporary societies, lifelong learning and education are considered indispensable for the capacity of reflection and critical thinking, in a perspective of peaceful coexistence and global citizenship.
INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR ADULT EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING BETWEEN PERSONALIZATION AND DIGITIZATION
1Università Roma Tre, Italia; 2Universitat de Lleida, España
Innovation is a crucial issue concerning current pedagogical proposes and prospects about education and learning for the near and long-term future.
Innovation in pedagogical and educational strategies must involve all types of education (formal, non-formal and informal) and all ages, especially adult education in the perspective of lifelong, lifewide and lifedeep learning. The challenge is very complex as there are many variables (age, gender, culture, educational experiences, work activity, etc.) to be taken into consideration in order to design personalized, effective, in-depth educational projects.
Innovation has become even more necessary since the persistence of the pandemic has forced people in almost every region of the earth and condition to reshape every aspect of life: from work to school, to university, to interpersonal and social relationships, to economy, to use of technology, to lifestyles and times of life. As we well know from having lived it on our skin, our life was suddenly turned upside down and we found ourselves locked up in our homes, alone or with our relatives. Our home has suddenly become our whole world, with very little chance of physically going outside its walls. Our home, from a place of intimacy and family relationships, among other things already put to the test by the countless activities and multiplicity of roles that we were pushed to play outside the home in contemporary societies, on the one hand stimulating but on the other often destabilizing if not alienating, it has become the center of everything.
We had to transform and reshape the home life places into professional or studying places to carry out remote work in smart working, or to attend classes, to maintain friendships, often at the same time and in a mix of difficult management. Although the problems have been many and of various kinds, a new way of living, studying, working has begun.
Technology, which had already become indispensable for our daily activities, has become even more so and required greater and broader knowledge and skills. From an educational point of view, e-learning platforms have had a great development and use.
From those premises, we are proposing a pedagogical strategy using tools (autobiographical methods, coding) aimed at emphasizing and promoting awareness of personal and social identity, of one's own educational and life experiences with a view to enhancing flexibility, sustainability and personalization useful for knowledge and skills for the work-place but also for life as a whole. According to the perspective underlined in LifeComp: The European Framework for Personal, Social and Learning to Learn Key Competence (2019), the focus is on personal but also social development, at work but also on life based on learning to learn as a key to lifelong, lifewide and lifedeep learning, strategic for an educating, inclusive society aimed at the well-being of people one and the companies.
The methodology used for data analysis is mixed: quantitative / qualitative. As for the qualitative analysis, the used method starts from the Grounded Theory by Glaser and Strauss (2009).
INNOVATIVE, MEDIA, STRATEGIC: WHICH SKILLS FOR THE NEW COMPLEXITIES?
University of Roma Tre, Italy
Skills are an actual “pass” to the future and, in recent years, have increasingly represented an issue of strategic importance for employability and citizenship rights (Alessandrini, 2016).
Nowadays, the digital transformation is reshaping the way people work, interact and live and, consequently, the skills they need. In the current labour market, we are witnessing an increase in the search for IT and digitally-skilled workers with a trend that, since 2010, has seen the demand significantly exceed supply of these skills, that, in the coming years, will be even much more in shortage (European Commission, 2019).
Similarly, it is growing the demand for skills related to innovation, technology design and programming, analysis and evaluation of systems and content and complex problem solving, starting with media literacy, with its critical and expressive functions. A literacy that includes not only the ways to understand and critically interpret media, but also the tools for widespread and correct online participation, through creative and social expression and a fair and conscious approach to research and web surfing (Buckingham, 2008).
In a recent white paper, entitled “Schools of the Future. Defining New Models of Education for the Fourth Industrial Revolution”, the World Economic Forum identifies a set of eight key characteristics for the high quality learning content and experiences in the scenarios of the near future. The report describes not only the so-called technology skills, but also skills related to global citizenship, in terms of awareness building and active participation in the “global” community; to innovation and creativity; to personalised rather than standardised learning. A learning that is lifelong and not only linked to formal contexts, collaborative and problem-solving oriented, accessible and inclusive. Thus, transversal competences become “strategic” for directing oneself in study, work (Pellerey, 2006) and, more generally, in life.
This paper aims at examining the skills required in the current work (and not only) scenarios, also presenting some data, analysed during a PhD research, which “snapshot” the perception of one’s own strategic competences in a sample of 180 “digital natives”.
Alessandrini, G. (2016). Nuovo manuale per l’esperto dei processi formativi. Roma: Carocci Editore.
Buckingham, D. (2008) (Ed.). Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
European Commission (2019). High-Tech Skills Industry. Increasing EU’s talent pool and promoting the highest quality standards in support of digital transformation. Brussels: Publications Office of the EU.
Pellerey, M. (2006). Dirigere il proprio apprendimento. Autodeterminazione e autoregolazione nei processi di apprendimento. Brescia: La Scuola.
WEF (2020). Schools of the Future. Defining New Models of Education for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
OLD AND NEW FORMS OF INEQUALITY IN A LIFELONG LEARNING PARADIGM
University of Bologna, Italy
In Italy, in the field of sociological reflection, and especially in sociology of education, the issue of inequalities in educational processes became the subject of study from the mid-1950s, with the advent of mass schooling, which made visible the problem of the influence of social stratification on access, permanence and success in studies.
The debate focuses mainly on the role of school, within a school-centric education system, as a tool enabling social mobility. The advent of the knowledge society has brought transformations that have affected the temporal dimension (lifelong learning) and the spatial dimension of education (life wide learning). For this reason, it is necessary to examine the new forms of social inequality which are added to the old ones. Life-long learning is a resource but also a risk because there is no coherence, linearity and stability between the various educational agencies.
In the new educational context, great importance is given to the action of the individual, who must be able to construct his or her own educational pathway throughout life, but sometimes without a precise task or a single educational goal to achieve, within the multiplicity of possibilities provided by the knowledge society. The watchword is agency. But are all the subjects put in a position to acquire and use those alphabets of citizenship necessary to recompose their own educational process?
The contribution starts from this question in order to analyse old and new forms of social inequalities in the learning society.
Besozzi E., (2017), Società, cultura, educazione. Teorie, contesti e processi, Carocci editore, Roma
Tagliaventi M. T. (2021) (in corso di stampa), L’educazione diffusa, FrancoAngeli, Milano
THE WORK-BASED APPROACH IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF LIFELONG LEARNING. REDESIGNING SUSTAINABLE LEARNING CURRICULA IN SCHOOLS
Università degli studi di Roma Tre, Italy
Reflection on the scenarios relating to the transformation of work and the creation of new professional skills required by the labor market leads to underline the importance of work-based learning processes (Cedefop, 2015; Marcone,2018) to a greater extent than in the past.
Current European policies for employability are increasingly directed towards work-based learning models (European Commission, 2013) such as apprenticeships, training internships or school-work alternation, in order to counteract the persistent increase in youth unemployment and so-called "Neet" (not employment, not education and training) and therefore reduce the skills deficit in transition school to work. Furthermore, the WBL approach is aimed not only at VET youth but also at adult learners who need upskilling and reskilling in the perspetcive of lifelong and wide learning (European Commission,2020).
The focus of my contribution is therefore based on rethinking dual learning paths - starting from schools - that can train young people capable of facing green and digital transitions (European Commission 2020 b)from the perspective of the sustainability paradigm (ONU,2015)
It is necessary for example redesigning learning curricula increasingly interconnected with the issues of the environment (circular and green economy), with value dimensions based on the ethics of solidal responsibility, with the dimension of caring.
It is necessary also enhancing the orientation and development paths of soft skills (PCTO) by integrating them with learning paths that involve students in contexts that can empower their agency in order to develop competences for sustainability (Unesco,2017). I refer especially to Third sector, such as non-profit organizations, social cooperatives, foundations, voluntary associations, social promotion bodies, o.n.g.
In this way the sustainable development goals (especially goal 4 and 8) of Agenda 2030 design a model of inclusive development where many principles and values are aligned with those pursued by Third sector (Marcone, 2020; Alessandrini, Mallen, 2020).
The pedagogical dimension of the analysis relating to the issue of work and the training of skills of young people is mainly related to medium and long-term processes, capable of triggering capacitive training processes to generate opportunities for development that have an impact on the economic level but also and above all on the level of human development (Sen, 1999, Nussbaum, 2012)
In this perspective the relevance of this theme is correlates with some issues on which the pedagogy of work and adult education (Alessandrini G., Costa M., Dato D., Ellerani P.,D’Aniello, Malavasi P.) questions itself, among which we recall:
- how to reduce the skills deficit between job supply and demand or between the educational and productive worlds through the recognition and certification of skills?
- How to tackle the conditions that generate unemployment, especially youth unemployment (the persistence of a significant percentage of Neet)?
- How to apply the key principles of the WBL in the context of lifelong learning with particular regard to the processes of the reskilling and upskilling processes of adults participating in training initiatives?
- What are the practices of recognition, validation and certification of the skills acquired in informal and non-formal contexts?
WORK EVOLUTION AND RELATIONAL DIMENSION: PEDAGOGICAL AND TRAINING TRAJECTORIES FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Università di Macerata, Italia
Fourth industrial revolution, Nano-Bio-Info-Cognitive Science and Technology, Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence, digital economy. All these terms indicate a metamorphosis, an evolution of work, organization and production. Current work has already changed, outlining its future. And the relational dimension seems to be a central and unavoidable dimension in this change. This is not an absolute novelty. Post-Fordism, in particular the lean post-Fordism, and the so-called knowledge economy or the economy of the immaterial have already underlined its importance and incorporated it in the creation of value. Unlike Fordism, which considered it a disturbing and unproductive element. However, the real novelty consists in the emerging and increasingly extended criticism to that neoliberal rationality, which permeated the post-Fordism model. The solution of continuity lies in the incipient demarcation from this rationality and its substantially functionalistic and productively instrumental conception of the relational field, revealing a new educational possibility. This pedagogical paper, which is written with a critical-argumentative methodological approach, intends to analyse the neoliberal impact on relational dynamics at work and to indicate some useful trajectories in order to translate the above-mentioned possibility into action, enhancing relationality for the purposes of a human development, in addition to a purely economic-productive one, in the light of the signs of a probable anthropological turning point, coming from several directions. The paper begins by highlighting the current working changes and its related relational needs, before moving to describe the post-Fordism openness and to dwell upon the bio-economic conception of the cooperative and relational variable. Then, the paper moves on the quoted trajectories, especially focusing on the topic of acting relationality conceived in an ethical and educational way, according to the perspective of a capability approach and in contrast to the theory of human capital which becomes an enterprise-unit. Secondly, it focuses on the dichotomy between the neoliberal performing-enjoying link and the acting-desiring one, as well as on the reflective, biographical and emotional-affective aspects of adult training for acting and desiring relationality. Therefore, the aim is to overcome a reductive and only performative point of view of the human factor for the benefit of an inclusive point of view, which is able to combine the demands of personal growth related to being-in-relationship with the demands of work innovation.