COMPETENCES IN GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION: FROM THE INDICATIONS OF THE ITALIAN NATIONAL CURRICULUM TO THE INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING OF PRE-SCHOOL AND PRIMARY EDUCATION
Università Europea di Roma, Italy
Global Citizenship Education (GCED) is one of the strategic areas of UNESCO's Education Program that aims to instill in learners the values, attitudes and behaviors that form the basis of responsible global citizenship.
This area has been developing in recent years in the different grades and orders of formal, non formal and informal education in most of the European countries, as reflected in the Eurydice report (2017). In Italy, the international dimension of citizenship education has been offered a key role. According to a survey carried out by the Osservatorio nazionale sull’internazionalizzazione delle scuole e la mobilità studentesca (2020: 24), the importance of developing an awareness of Global Citizenship Education is confirmed through four fundamental reasons: 1. young people already experience this dimension in their daily life, 2. many of the most relevant issues today show that all countries of the world are strictly interconnected, 3. the panorama of the labor market offers more and better opportunities to those who are equipped to move in a more international context, and 4. it is important to strengthen the values underlying a healthy globalization.
It is interesting to observe the philosophical reflection of the American academician Nussbaum (2005; 2011) and Gil Claros (2018) regarding the insertion of global citizenship in the school curriculum, which according to the first author should start from an age early in school. In line with these studies, the present text analyzes, from a documentary methodology, the competences of Global Citizenship Education present in the Italian curricula of Nursery School and Primary School.
The analysis, which has related the citizenship competencies reflected in the MIUR (2007) and Eurydice (2017) reports in the various fields of experience and disciplines of both educational levels, has allowed us to observe that the Pre-school Education and Primary Education curricula, written in 2012 and expanded in 2018, already included many of the key competencies in Global Citizenship Education. Likewise, the normative decrees and action guidelines implemented to develop the new civic education subject have been analyzed, which, by ministerial decree (DM n.35 of June 22, 2020), has been approved in application of the Law n. 92 of August 20, 2019.
Furthermore, the study of the implementation of the transversal subject in the Pre-school education and Primary education levels of the Italian school has lead us to reflect on the new competences in Global Citizenship Education necessary to develop an effective and quality Initial Teacher Training. The competences in global citizenship to be developed in the pedagogical and sociological disciplinary areas have been identified, as well as, in a generic way, the need to expand this vision to the rest of the disciplines from a transversal and interdisciplinary perspective.
HOW TO DEBATE NATIONAL IDENTITY IN REAL LIFE AND ON SOCIAL MEDIA
Università per Stranieri di Perugia, Italy
Thanks to the widespread diffusion of the Internet, the last few decades have been characterized by the growing importance of social media. Furthermore, phenomena such as globalization, gender studies, economic crises, climate change and migration flows have raised doubts regarding traditional identities and have favored the formation of different representations of individuals and communities. A specific intersection of the aforementioned trends is the conceptualization of national identity by users of social media, a topic with implications in various thematic areas, for instance the functioning of the Internet (including algorithms), its most dangerous communicative and cognitive dysfunctions (such as fake news and post-truth), the role of debate and the right to citizenship. The paper aims not only to reflect theoretically on the matter, but also to elaborate a multidisciplinary didactic proposal based on an inductive approach and addressed to upper secondary school students, who are likely to show interest in those issues: in addition to using social media and living in multicultural societies, they may study subjects such as law and philosophy and may start developing a social conscience. The goals of the project are to teach participants how to write on social media and to enable them to acquire critical thinking by analyzing authentic texts and pictures and debating constructively both in real life and online. In other words, the students are expected both to manage the semiotic complexity of social media and to carry out debates on fundamental subjects regarding civic education by not simply expressing their own opinions, but also acknowledging their opponents as interlocutors worth respecting and listening to.
The paper is threefold in structure. The first part provides the theoretical framework: after explaining the main features of social media, it takes into consideration the most common representations of Italians and foreigners promoted in the media over the years. The second part analyzes two Facebook posts and their associated comments focusing on the label of “Italian”. The case studies prove to be particularly suitable for designing two learning units, which are sketched in the third part. The didactic activities fulfil two main objectives: firstly, they raise awareness of the importance of an ethical and effectively communicative use of social media, especially when debating (Mastroianni, 2017; Gheno and Mastroianni, 2020; Mastroianni, 2020); secondly, they problematize the concepts of national identity and of citizenship by showing the models of integration and the citizenship laws adopted in some multicultural societies (Colombo, 2011).
Colombo, E. (2011), Le società multiculturali, second edition, Roma, Carocci.
Gheno, V. and Mastroianni, B. (2020), Tienilo acceso. Posta, commenta, condividi senza spegnere il cervello, third edition, Milano, Longanesi.
Mastroianni, B. (2017), La disputa felice. Dissentire senza litigare sui social network, sui media e in pubblico, Firenze, Cesati.
Mastroianni, B. (2020), Litigando si impara. Disinnescare l’odio online con la disputa felice, Firenze, Cesati.
INTERNATIONALISATION OF SCHOOL EDUCATION: DEFINITION, MODEL AND CHALLENGES
Fondazione Intercultura, Italia
Within the internationalisation of the education sector, one of the emerging and promising voices is the internationalisation of school. But what does internationalisation of schools mean? How is it translated into practice? To answer these questions, we will first discuss a working definition and a model of the internationalisation of school education. Second, we will present the trend of internationalisation in Italian high school according to the index of internationalisation designed by the National Observatory on the Internationalisation of Italian Schools and Pupil Mobility. Finally, we will focus on one traditional practice in the process of internationalisation of school, namely pupil mobility.
Baiutti, M. (2019). Protocollo di valutazione Intercultura. Comprendere, problematizzare e valutare la mobilità studentesca internazionale. Pisa: ETS.
Baiutti, M. (2021). Developing and Assessing Intercultural Competence during a Mobility Programme for Pupils in Upper Secondary School: The Intercultura Assessment Protocol. Frontiers: The interdisciplinary journal of study abroad, 33(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v33i1.502
de Wit, H. (2015). School internationalisation: Whose opportunity? University World News, 377. Retrieved from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20150811193137804
de Wit, H., Gacel-Avila, J., Jones, E., & Jooste, N. (2017). The globalization of internationalization: Emerging voices and perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge.
Deardorff, D. K., de Wit, H., Heyl, J. D., & Adams, T. (Eds.). (2012). The SAGE handbook of international higher education. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Rizvi, F. (2017). School internationalization and its implications for higher education. In H. de Wit, J. Gacel-Avila, E. Jones, & N. Jooste (Eds.), The globalization of internationalization: Emerging voices and perspectives (pp. 18-26). Abingdon: Routledge.
THE INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION OF CITIZENSHIP AND CIVIC EDUCATION
The international dimension of Civic Education
Nowadays internationalisation of schools has become a priority, and the new teaching of “Civic Education” represents a great opportunity. But, how much emphasis will be placed on the international dimension of Civic education in upper secondary school? How much time will be devoted to European and international issues? Will pupils be encouraged to open up to the world and to live in an intercultural and globalised society? To answer these questions, IPSOS and Fondazione Intercultura ran a study which involved 12 opinion leaders, 325 headmasters and 402 pupils. The main results highlighted that Civic education represents a key opportunity to develop active global citizens who are aware of being part of a global community, who promote openness, dialogue, cooperation with people with different cultural backgrounds. Among the obstacles that emerged from this study to foster the international dimension of Civic education was the lack of preparation of teachers on international education.
Observatory on internationalisation of schools and pupils mobility (2020). The international dimension of Civic Education. Available: Report 2020
THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD AS AN INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION OF CIVIC EDUCATION
Roma La Sapienza, Italia
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, approved by the UN General Assembly in 1989, today is the “most ratified international document in the world”, but this wide legal acceptance does not correspond to such wide knowledge or sufficient implementation (Bosisio, 2018, p. 5-6). That is also because, since the Convention was adopted, “it has become increasingly clear that there are still wide cultural differences, that we must not and cannot ignore if children’s rights are to be made effective, and the ‘normative imperialism’ is to be avoided”. (Ivi, p. 9). There still are many issues raised over the years about the Convention: the appropriateness of speaking of rights for children, their individual and social responsibility (Ronfani, 2013), the different interpretation of the concepts of protection and participation of children (Macinai, 2017).
From a pedagogical point of view, we suggest dealing this complexity directly with children, touching some fundamental questions, as “What is a right? What are/should be your rights?”. This is a valid didactical way to promote the idea that children are subject of rights, and that the assumption of this perspective leads to the resolution of many problems of adults too (Tonucci, 2021), so much that the issue of children's rights assumes a priority value (Costerbosa, 2019).
This article contains some examples of activities with students (from 8 to 13 years old) and with immigrant women of a CPIA: we started from a reduction of the articles of the UN Convention and from the use of Tonucci’s cartoons, which activate thoughts and emotions in original (provocative) ways.
The proposal to work on children's rights is consistent with the aims of Law 92/2019, which introduced civic education in Italy and assigns it the task of promoting “all actions [...] aimed at feeding and strengthening respect for people” (art. 3, c. 2), including children.
Finally, addressing the complexity of the issue of children's rights means addressing its international dimension, because this complexity is linked above all to the multiplicity of interpretations that different cultures give to the basic notions of children, law, protection, participation, etc.
Bosisio R. (2018). I diritti dei bambini: stato dell’arte e nuove sfide. Rassegna bibliografica infanzia e adolescenza, Nuova Serie, n. 3-4, pp. 5-15.
Costerbosa M. L., (2019). I diritti dei bambini come priorità: Una vicenda europea. Rivista di filosofia del diritto, VIII, numero speciale, pp. 137-160.
Macinai E., (2017). I diritti dei bambini nella società dei consumi: protezione e partecipazione. Rivista di storia dell’educazione, n. 2, pp. 89-102.
MIUR (2020), Linee guida per l’insegnamento dell’educazione civica. Allegato al DM 22 giugno 2020.
Ronfani P. (2013). I diritti dei bambini: vecchie e nuove questioni. Sociologia del diritto, n. 2, pp. 107-130.
Tonucci, F. (2021). Il bambino come motore di cambiamento. Studi Urbinati, B-Scienze umane e sociali, 69, pp. 661-684.