GENDER STEREOTYPES IN SOCIAL ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS AGAINST GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
University of Pisa, Italy
The presentation will examine how male violence against women is presented in Italian social advertising campaigns as “cultural object” (Griswold 1986) produced by institutions which are not neutral, being characterized by a clearly oriented system of values and norms specifically for gender but also for the other axes of social differentiation (Connell, 2006).
This relational and culturalist approach to gender as social relation allows to identify meanings and shared significance embodied in form, considered as smaller parts of the interrelated, larger social system, and to identify the persistence of stereotypes and prejudices that become the bearers of unequal gender relations preventive that social advertising should promote a paradigm shift to reflect the complexity of the phenomenon and encourage a different social perception of it.
An analysis of the Italian campaigns (N=18) promoted by various institutional bodies and not-for-profit organizations – across a 15-year period – against gender-based violence is used to identify the social representation of femininity, masculinity and violence and its constructions all over the time.
The analysis has been conducted by using the Goffmanian ‘canon’ of gender advertisements integrated by the variables that seem typical of twenty-first century European representational styles (Kress, Van Leeuwen 2020), allowing us to identify how male(s), female(s) and their relations were represented in the social scene ritualized by the advertising.
From the analysis of the Italian campaigns, we have identified as female, and women survivors are the main target bur recently there have been some attempts at addressing men. In the first case the communication code is still heavily influenced by the private, intimate, and heterosexual model, the male gaze remains dominant. The analysis of the campaigns targeted to men seems to fail the attempt to introduce a different imaginary about male and female responsibility against violence (i.e. the campaign by Maschile Plurale and Officina). Even if the aim is to show the male figure as both the target of and the active agent against violence against women (Coco 2013), the persistence of material and symbolic domination still remains in traditional code of representing intimate relationship along the axes of social differentiation: men vs. women, individual vs. groups, public vs. private scene, and ordinary people vs. celebrities, etc..
Bourdieu, P. (1998). La domination masculine. París: Éditions du Seuil.
Coco, E. (2013). “Donne e uomini nella comunicazione sociale sulla violenza di genere. Le campagne ‘Il Fiocco Bianco’ e ‘NoiNo.org’”, in S.Magaraggia, S.Cherubini (eds), Uomini contro le donne? Le radici della violenza maschile (pp.245–260). Torino: Utet.
Connell, R.W. (2006), ‘The Experience of Gender Change in Public Sector Organizations’, Gender, Work and Organization, 13 (5), 435–452.
Kress G., Van Leeuwen T. (2020). Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge
Goffman E. (1979), Gender Advertisements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Griswold, W. (1987). “Methodological Framework for the Sociology of Culture”, Sociological Methodology, 17, 1–35.
Griswold, W. (1994). Cultures and Societies in a Changing World. Thousand Oaks Pine: Forge Press.
MEDIA REPRESENTATION OF VERBAL, EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VIOLENCE IN INTIMATE COMMUNICATION. ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL ROOTS AND INTERACTIONS IN SOME FILMS
Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy
Recent statistics show that verbal, emotional and psychological abuse is an intimate partner violence quite spread in heterosexual couples and usually perpetrated by male partners on women before physical abuse, within a violence cycle or an escalation. However, this kind of gender-based violence is less visible, more subtle, and therefore more difficult to denounce, compared to sexual and physical violence. In addition, research on verbal, emotional and psychological abuse in intimate communication, and even on how media try to represent it, is still poor. Against this backdrop, the aim of this contribution is to examine the ways in which some films represent: (a) the cultural roots of verbal, emotional and psychological violence, (b) the form of interaction, and the actions, which express this kind of abuse. To achieve this goal, 11 films have been selected. They were produced in USA, UK, Italy, and France, from 1944 to 2020: Gaslight (G. Cukor, 1944); Sleeping with the enemy (J. Ruben, 1991), Enough (M. Apted, 2002), Primo amore (M. Garrone, 2004), Big eyes (T. Burton, 2014), L’amore rubato (I. Braschi, 2016), The girl on the train (T. Taylor, 2016), The wife (B. Runge, 2017), Jusqu’à la guarde (X. Legrand, 2017), Colette (W. Westmoreland, 2018), The invisible man (L. Whannell, 2020). Film analysis focuses on three specific forms of verbal, emotional and psychological abuse in intimate communication: (1) work devaluation, (2) gaslight, (3) control of body, actions, and agency. The approach used is socio-anthropological. Firstly, the anthropological analysis of the cultural roots of verbal, emotional and psychological violence adopts Gender Studies and a feminist approach, which look at gender-based violence as connected to a power asymmetry between men and women. This perspective analyses how the selected films represent this hierarchical relationship, displayed by a verbal, emotional and psychological abuse. Secondly, the analysis of the interactions and actions, which express verbal, emotional and psychological violence, embraces a sociological approach that combines a systemic and constructivist theory of communication with dialogue studies. According to this approach, violence originates in interaction, it’s an action that denies the interlocutor’s diversity (of opinions, emotions, experiences) and puts an end to a problematic and even unsustainable communication. Within couples, while love takes place through dialogue, violence is the main expression of monologue, i.e. an asymmetrical form of interaction built on the control of partner’s autonomy, and the imposition of one’s perspective. To sum up, the analysis highlights the relevance of this kind of violence in cinematic representation. In addition, thanks to an interdisciplinary approach, the analysis also shows the strong connection between monologic actions and the patriarchal background that seems to motivate and authorize verbal, emotional and psychological violence.
TOWARDS A NON-DISCRIMINATORY AND STEREOTYPED METHODOLOGY: INNOVATING QUANTITATIVE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH FOR A NEW SCHOOL SOCIALIZATION IN THE FIELD OF GENDER
Tuscia University - Viterbo, Italy
THE QUESTION OF REINVENTING GENDER ISSUES IN EDUCATION INVOLVES INNOVATION IN THE CONCEPTION OF SOCIOLOGICAL QUESTIONNAIRES.
IN THE LIGHT OF THE GENDER QUESTION, RESEARCH HAS TO BE BASED ON NEW QUESTIONS, NEW ANSWERS, NEW CATEGORIES, NEW THEORIES.
THIS IS A CRUCIAL METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGE FOR QUANTITATIVE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH.
THE PAPER DEALS WITH THE SUBJECT FROM A THEORETICAL ANA METHODOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW, CONSIDERING A GOOD AND BAD PRACTICES, TRYING TO OUTLINE CONTEXTUAL AND PROSPECTIVE ASPECTS.
WATCHING PORNHUB: GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE REPRESENTATION OF PORNOGRAPHY CONSUMPTION
University of Messina, Italy
Pornhub – the most famous porn video portal in the world - is a priviledged point of observation to investigate how an intense relation with porn has permanently entered collective imaginary and sexual practice for men and women. A universe, not too long ago controversial and traditionally enjoyed by men, now gains a significant role in women’s sexuality. Our analysis is going to focus on women’s pornographic consumption. The first part of the contribution will be dedicated to a historical reconstruction of the relation between female audiences and pornographic texts. On the basis of Pornhub data (2020), we will then investigate the use of pornography by Italian women: favorite categories, time spent on pornographic videos, selected vision devices. The final part of the work will reconnect the metamorfosis of perspectives to the change in the production strategies in the pornographic economy. In fact, it is important for women to stay behind the camera so that their perspective on sexuality find space and is recognised by the pornography industry. It’s important to reject the rigid gender binary places men as agents and women as passive in the representation of porn audience.
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Ashton, S. et al. (2019). Pornography and women’s sexual pleasure: Accounts from young women in Australia, “Feminism & Psychology”, vol. 29, n. 3, pp. 409-432.
Ashton, S. et al. (2018). Women’s experiences of pornography: A systematic review of research using qualitative methods, “Journal of Sex Research”, 55, 3, pp. 334–347.
Ciuffoli, E. (2019). L’indiscreto fascino dei dati. Il caso Pornhub, “Economia e Management”, 2, pp. 57-60.
Daskalopoulou, A. & Zanette, M.C. (2020). Women’s Consumption of Pornography: Pleasure, Contestation, and Empowerment, “Sociology”, 54, 5, pp. 969-986.
Ferrerero Camoletto, R. & Todesco, L. (2019). From Sexual Objectification to Sexual Subjectification? Pornography Consumption and Italian Women’s Sexual Empowerment, “AG AboutGender. Rivista internazionale di studi di genere”, 8, 16, pp. 129-157.
Hite, S. (1977). Il rapporto Hite. Una inchiesta nuova sulla sessualità femminile, Milano, Bompiani
Rodeschini, S. & Zecca, F. (2019). Pornflix. Pornhub e la normalizzazione dell’industria pornografica contemporanea, “Schermi”, 5, 3, pp. 101 – 115.
Schauer, T. (2005). Women’s Porno: The Heterosexual Female Gaze in Porn Sites “for Women”, “Sexuality & Culture”, 9,2, pp. 42–64.