WHICH TRAJECTORIES TO TRAIN "SECOND LEVEL" EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONALS? REFLECTIONS ABOUT A UNIVERSITY TRAINEESHIP FACING COVID PANDEMIC
Università di Milano-Bicocca, Italy
The paper aims to propose a specific reflection about the “second level” educational professionals’ training. For “second-level” education professional we mean a professional who is trained to act as a supervisor, trainer, evaluator, coordinator, or counsellor in the field of education, and who has therefore acquired a “second-level” perspective on educational work.
These professional are involved in activities such as designing, managing, and evaluating educational services in different contexts of intervention. Developing such skills represents a challenge for university didactic because it entails a strong connections between thinking and acting (Schön, 1993), instrumental dimension and meaning making, theoretical and practical knowledge (Riva, 2011). In relation to this, the university traineeeship programme could represent a fundamental place for synthesis and composition (Galimberti et al., 2016). The Master Degree Course in Pedagogical Sciences of Milano Bicocca University elaborated a programme meant to enhance the learning potential for students, firstly carried out in A.Y. 2015-2016 and labelled Tirocinio Formativo e di Orientamento (TFO) or Traineeship and Guidance Programme (Galimberti et al., 2015).
The University traineeship programme for second level educational professionals will be presented, highlighting its pedagogical assumptions. Particularly, a specific focus will be dedicated to activities of research (Fook, 2002; Koustoulas et al., 2019) in an educational service setting with the aim to explore the educational second level professional functions being implemented there (Gambacorti-Passerini, 2019).
The path, implemented for the first time in the 2015-2016 academic year, has been further refined year by year also referring to focus group discussions conducted with the students at the end of the full year of operation of the training.
Important changes in the traineeship have been caused by the Covid pandemic: a peculiar focus of the presentation will be also oriented to expose them and the educational reflections that justified them.
Fook J. (2002), Theorizing from Practice. Towards an inclusive Approach for Social Work Research, in Qualitative Social Work, 1(1): 79-95.
Galimberti A., Gambacorti-Passerini M.B., Palmieri C., Riva M.G., Zannini L. (2015), A traineeship experience for master degree students in Pedagogical Sciences. From a research-based approach to a model of blended-learning mentoring, in Formazione, Lavoro, Persona (CQIA RIVISTA), anno V, n. 15, novembre 2015: 113-127.
Galimberti, A., Gambacorti-Passerini, M.B., Palmieri, C. (2016), Formare il professionista di secondo livello. Quali sfide per l’università?, in Scuola Democratica, 3: 667-686.
Gambacorti-Passerini M.B. (2019),Tirocinio Formativo e di Orientamento: riflessioni pedagogiche intorno a un percorso di tirocinio universitario per futuri professionisti educativi di secondo livello, in Annali online della Didattica e della Formazione Docente, Vol. 11, n. 18/2019: 251-263.
Kostoulas A., Babić S., Glettler C., Karner A., Mercer S. & Seidl E. (2019), Lost in research: educators’ attitudes towards research and professional development, in Teacher Development, 23:3: 307-324.
Riva, M.G. (2011), Il rapporto tra teoria e prassi: una riflessione clinico-pedagogica, in Rassegna di Pedagogia, 18(1-2): 161-178.
Schön, D. (1993), Il professionista riflessivo. Per una nuova epistemologia della pratica professionale, Dedalo, Bari.
THE INTERNSHIP OF THE BACHELOR'S DEGREE COURSE IN EDUCATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MILANO-BICOCCA IN TIME OF PANDEMIC
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy
In March 2020, the lockdown for the diffusion of the virus Covid-19 obligated to redefine the university teaching and consequently the internship activities of the Bachelor’s Degree course in Education.
The professional educator is called to restore a balance where a crisis occurs «in a system of educational experiences, that interests the individual and collective subjects» . Similarly, the Didactical Coordination, responsible for student’s internships, had to face the crisis arising from emergency though two supportive strategies: ensuring the continuity of the training course and helping students in crossing and pedagogically rereading what was happening.
It has been possible to achieve these two goals thanks to the specificities of internship of the Bachelor’s Degree course in Education, that regard: the presence of a Didactical Coordination; the collaboration with some educational experts (pedagogical supervisors) and the constant involvement of local educational services. The Didactical Coordination defines the operative planning assumptions of this model and its implementation. The pedagogical supervisors carry out or have carried out a profession that «students in training have chosen to carry out in future; they know and are able to master skills, contradictions and specificity of this job» . Finally, the educational services host the trainees and form them by sharing some project hypotheses that underpin the model, bearing synergy and reciprocity of educational intent.
Despite the pandemic brought the impossibility to live the University and forced isolation and social-formative distance, this triple level of dialogue offered students continuity in terms of relationships, activities and learning.
The constant dialogue of the Didactical Coordination with educational services was important to understand the possibility to ensure the implementation of the internship in the complexity of the emergence. At the same time, it was useful to detect difficulties, needs and transformations within services and consequently of educational practices.
The relationship with pedagogical supervisors made possible constant monitoring of students' needs to guarantee them support to face training, problems and toils. It made possible the mediation between training, organizational and health needs, trying to preserve the sense of all formative path, discovering its educational potential, yet accepting the critical issues and the inevitable "losses" due to the pandemic. The supervisors’ competence has enforced the adoption of new ways of managing distance activities, that were functional to the objectives of the internship.
Finally, the dialogue with the university-level institution, through administrative machinery and punctual indications of the rectory decrees, enabled to have a clear framework within which to move and thus ensure the acquisition of the achievement of the training objectives.
 Tramma S. (2018), L’educatore imperfetto. Senso e complessità del lavoro educativo, Carocci, Roma, p. 63.
 Palmieri C. et al. (2009), Pensare e fare tirocinio. Manuale di Tirocinio per l’educatore professionale, Franco Angeli, Milano, p. 108.
THE CURRICULAR TRAINEESHIP IN A WORK SETTING DURING THE PANDEMIC. THE EXPERIENCE OF PEDAGOGICAL COURSES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BERGAMO
University of Bergamo, Department of Human and Social Sciences, Italy
The national and international pedagogical literature considers the traineeship an important and privileged tool for the transition of young people into the world of work and for the development of lifelong learning processes (Bertagna, 2012).
For this reason, it is necessary to consider traineeship not only as a guidance strategy to improve employability to be used in the last years of high school or university but as an authentic pedagogical and didactic methodology based on the training paradigm of work-related learning (Lave, Wenger, 2006; Palmieri e altri, 2009; Potestio, 2020).
During the last year, the Covid-19 pandemic has generated numerous difficulties in conducting curricular in-person traineeships. The following article aims to investigate the pedagogical reasons that underlie a specific form of curricular traineeship, perhaps still little researched and tested in Italian university courses: traineeships in work settings.
Starting from the experimentation of this peculiar form of traineeship activated for several years within the pedagogical courses (Bachelor of Educational Sciences L-19 and Master degree of Pedagogical Sciences LM-85) of the Department of Human and Social Sciences of the University of Bergamo, the article wants to analyze the forms of implementation and development of curricular traineeship in work settings during this last year of Covid-19 pandemic.
The curricular traineeship in work settings allows to attribute meaning and value to the professional experiences of students-workers, allowing them to carry out a reflexive activity on job contexts, on the organization and on the actions they perform daily. This reflective activity can also be carried out with regard to professional activities performed remotely (educational and pedagogical teams, telematic meetings) or in relation with work carried out before the Covid-19 pandemic (or before the lockdown period with temporary closure of the service).
For this reasons, the curricular traineeship in work settings is proving to be a flexible process and able, even during the Covid-19 pandemic, to allow a good educational and training relationship between tutor and student, highlighting the importance of the pedagogical principle of work-related learning, which is based on the awareness that every work activity, if carried out in a responsible way, without distinctions and hierarchies between intellectual and manual dimensions, theory and practice, reflection and action, can be a relevant training field for the promotion of personal skills (Sandrone, 2018; Cegolon, 2020).
Bertagna G. (2012), Scuola e lavoro, tra formazione e impresa. Nodi critici e (im?)possibili soluzioni, in id. (ed.), Fare laboratorio. Scenari culturali ed esperienze di ricerca nelle scuole del secondo ciclo, La Scuola, Brescia.
Cegolon A. (2020), Lavoro e pedagogia del lavoro. Origine, sviluppo, prospettive, Edizioni Studium, Roma
Lave J., Wenger E. (2006), L’apprendimento situato. Dall’osservazione alla partecipazione attiva nei contesti sociali, Erikson, Trento.
Palmieri C., Rossetti S., Pozzoli B., Tognetti S., (eds.) (2009), Pensare e fare tirocinio. Manuale di tirocinio per l'educatore professionale, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Potestio A. (2020), Alternanza formativa. Radici storiche e attualità di un principio pedagogico, Edizioni Studium, Roma.
Sandrone G. (2018), La competenza personale tra formazione e lavoro, Edizioni Studium, Roma.
THE TRANS-FORMATIVE POWER OF TRAINEESHIP POST COVID-19
Università degli Studi di Trieste, Italia
Since 2016, the Course of Study in Educational Sciences of the University of Trieste has started a process of improvement in its internship practices, using the methodology of pedagogical supervision (Oggionni, 2013), both individually and in groups. Pedagogical supervision is based on an articulation of the training internship that is based on the triad epistemologically based: teaching-laboratory-training (Dalle Fratte, 2005) in which the supervisor works - metaphorically as a "tailor" - to achieve an individualization of the apprentice’s path. The result is a development project "sewn on" each apprentice to provide a set of cultural, motivational and reflective tools.
The support to reflexivity act as «synergy between educational situations and their conceptualization, between experience and its theorization» (Mariani, 2005, p. 82) and leads the apprentice- at the end of the internship - to sew himself his own educational habitus, in the virtuous interweaving between knowledge (teachings) and practice (direct internship).
The metaphor of the dress "sewn on" and the pedagogical supervisor as "tailor" reflects, in our opinion, the leap in quality that can overcome the challenge of the complexity of educational professionalism, which is made of unpredictability and uncertainty and rejects simplifications (Bastianoni, Spaggiari, 2013). The pedagogical supervisor, in this perspective, is the guarantor in the construction of an "epistemology of educational practice" (Mariani, 2005) that becomes a feature of permanent distinctiveness of the work of the educator.
The pandemic has brought with it new forms of teaching, especially for internships. Many of these will not be dismessed but may become permanent modalities to corresponding every "personal" way to become educators.
RETHINKING TRAINING AND SUPERVISION DURING COVID-19: ISSUES OF INITIAL AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FOR EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONALS
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia
The training and supervision courses during the Covid-19 health emergency represent important elements of analysis and intervention, both in the school and within extra-curricular settings.
On the one hand, pedagogical supervision makes it possible to thematize the relationship between continuity and discontinuity in education: the weakening of face-to-face appointments and of the spatial-temporal planning of meetings made it necessary to rethink the dimension of the équipe and its moments of supervision. In this way, forms of prevention and social distancing can be developed as an integral part of an educational project, not just as a problematic constraint.
On the other hand, the complexity of educational interventions makes it necessary to rethink and strengthen the moments of curricular and extracurricular traineeships. The traineeship, as a formative experience of orientation and reflection on educational practices, but also as a bridge between initial and in-service training, represents a decisive moment not only to guarantee students to experience what they have learned in their curricular path, but also to do experience of specific service dispositions not necessarily influenced by academic pedagogical cultures; this process also allows the educational service to approach the critical-reflective contribution provided by the trainee.
In the case of traineeships organized in the Unimore Department of Education and Humanities during the health emergency, the training of educators was understood as a synthesis between cultural, professional and existential factors, according to the response to needs and resources of gender, generation, psycho-physical profile, social class and ethnic-linguistic-religious groups.
In this sense, it was intended to provide materials and propose activities with an active-interactive and critical-reflective character (with individual and group tasks, characterized by discussions with the teacher). In particular: the mapping and analysis of educational services in the chosen region; the examination of strategies usable in several areas of intervention; the analysis of videos of pedagogical relevance; the investigation of tools related to the acquisition of personal and social autonomy; the elaboration of conceptual maps to support students with Specific Learning Disorders; the planning of interventions in different educational contexts; the production of a paper related to the critical-reflective work of the educator.
In this regard, the contribution addresses the relationship between initial and in-service curriculum of the educational professions, highlighting how the experiences of training and supervision are not only an integral part of the educators’ work, but can also become an aspect of analysis and participation by the trainees. At the same time, a reflective and operational training of the trainee improves the cultural and professional growth of the educational service as well.
Cerrocchi L., & Dozza L. (Eds.). (2018). Contesti educativi per il sociale. Progettualità, professioni e setting per il benessere individuale e di comunità. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
Palmieri C., Pozzoli B., Rossetti S.A., & Tognetti S. (Eds.). (2013). Pensare e fare tirocinio. Manuale di tirocinio per l'educatore professionale. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
Riva M.G. (2004). Il lavoro pedagogico come ricerca dei significati e ascolto delle emozioni. Milano: Guerini.
INSPIRING AND PREPARING A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF THE PROFESSIONAL ROLE OF EDUCATOR: A SIMULATED TRAINEESHIP EXPERIENCE
University of Cagliari, Italy
The simulated traineeship experience that inspires this text has involved second and third year-students of the Sciences of Education Course in the field of the nursery and childcare services during the first COVID-19 lockdown.
It has followed a “Simulated Educational Enterprise” model that has been successful in high schools in the first years of 2000. In this case, a training space has been set up, that was preparatory to the opening of the service (legislation, regulations, planning); as well as a dialogue with pedagogically trained educational professionals, that are already engaged in early childhood education, concerning activities in which University trainees are involved. A theoretical/practical education has been developed concerning aspects that the trainee, in reality, seldom or only on an executive level confronts, since he/she more often uses, in real traineeships, theoretical and physical materials that are already fitted by structured educators.
Therefore, the simulated traineeship experience has been shaped as a sort of incubator for developing a solid connection between science (outdoor education: Farné, Bortolotti, Terrusi, Outdoor education, 2018; musical education: E. Gordon; Montessori methods: M. Montessori; Elinor Goldschmied and sensorial and psychomotor development theories: Hughes, Developing play for the under 3s: the treasure basket and heuristic play, 2015), practice and legislation.
The simulated traineeship has, hence, carried out following steps:
- Knowing the early childhood services legislation
- Knowing the nursery organization – spaces and daily activities
- Analysing the young guests’ educational needs
- Analysing and evaluating the regulations and the education provided by the childcare services
- Planning and realizing early childhood education
- Developing reflective and cooperative work capabilities
The strong points of the realized experience have concerned the chance provided to the educators to-be, to look at their professional role in its foundations: deepening the theoretical perspective from which it descends; taking part in the planning of the simulated activities, by shaping the specific materials for these (an important manual construction that leads to the understanding of the object’s pedagogical meaning); examining the normative perspectives and offered possibilities; developing an entrepreneurial look on their activity.
The weak points of the experience lay intrinsically in its status of simulation: the impossibility of a real interaction with young children and their families and with colleagues represents an objective limitation in obtaining an approach’s validation. Moreover, the absence of real work circumstances hinders the “reflective professional” in developing the implicit and internalized knowledges (Palmieri, Pozzoli, Rossetti, Tognetti, Pensare e fare tirocinio, 2009; Mortari, Apprendere dall’esperienza, 2003) that are part of their education.
Nonetheless, since it is often pointed out how University traineeships that aren’t embedded in a comprehensive perspective of the professional role of educator lack to be effective in terms of an authentic professional and general education (Oggionni, Palmieri (eds), Il tirocinio per le professioni educative come esperienza formativa, 2019; Cornacchia, Formare le competenze trasversali degli educatori socio-pedagogici: il ruolo dell’università, 2020), it is possible to suppose that the described simulated traineeship approach could be valued as a preparatory eductional step to the real traineeship.