PREJUDICE AND ANTISEMITISM IN SCHOOL: A CHALLENGE FOR CIVIC EDUCATION
UNIVERSITA' CATTOLICA DEL S.CUORE, Italy
Prejudice, intolerance and racism take different forms in various historical periods, based on social and political changes. The phenomena of “neo-racism” and “neo-anti-Semitism” are present today among the new generations in a cultural rather than a biological-racial form, but they are no less worrying for this (Taguieff 1999, Wievorka 1993).
In particular, anti-Semitism undergoes some metamorphoses related to the progressive weakening of the memory linked to the events of the Second World War, to current conflicts and to the spread of hate speech online (Lipstadt 2020, Santerini 2021, Santerini 2005).
The democratic school represents an important tool to fight hate phenomena and promote intercultural skills and interreligious dialogue, through a lived and taught citizenship (Cogan Derricott 1998, Santerini 2010). Civic education cannot be limited to transmitting contents but it is a tool for developing critical thinking, intercultural understanding, the ability to dialogue and fight prejudice (Council of Europe, 2016). Through the results of a research carried out among teachers, the issues relating to anti-Semitism in Italian schools, the relationship with the teaching of the Shoah, the guidelines for identifying student resistance and planning citizenship education in an intercultural perspective will be presented.
Cogan J.J., Derricott R., Citizenship for the 21th Century. An international Perspective on Education, Cogan Page, London 1998
Consiglio d’Europa, Competenze per una cultura della democrazia. Vivere insieme in condizioni di parità in società democratiche e culturalmente diverse, Strasbourg 2016.
Lipstadt D., Antisemitismo. Una storia di oggi e di domani, Luiss University Press, Roma 2020
Santerini M., Antisemitismo senza memoria. Insegnare la Shoah nelle società multiculturali, Carocci, Roma 2005.
Santerini M., La scuola della cittadinanza, Laterza, Roma-Bari 2010
Santerini M., La mente ostile. Forme dell’odio contemporaneo, Raffaello Cortina, Milano 2021
Taguieff P.-A., Il razzismo. Pregiudizi, teorie, comportamenti, Raffaello Cortina, Milano 1999.
Wieviorka M., Lo spazio del razzismo, Il Saggiatore, Milano 1993
PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE LOGOTHERAPY: SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCES AND RELIGIOUS VALUES FOR AN INTERCULTURAL CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Italia
In an age defined by many scholars as post-secular, in which beliefs, new beliefs and non-beliefs have continuously to dialogue and to compare each other, the religiosity, or more generally the spirituality, is increasingly becoming a human category on which reflecting pedagogically for the construction of a citizenship of solidarity. In this sense, religious and non-religious experiences and values can be the existential pillar for a peaceful education in a time marked not only by intercultural dialogue but also by intercultural conflict.
Viktor Frankl's logotherapy has succeeded in harmonizing the biological, psychic and existential dimensions in a person for the construction of balanced personality. In this way, this psychological approach can contribute effectively to an educational theory based on values that deals with the theme of spirituality and religion as existential attitudes guiding choices according to a principle of conscience.
After an introduction of some value aspects (meaning) related to logotherapy, we will consider how pedagogical implications (concerning religious education) are useful for the educational construction of personal and community paths that a) are inclusive on a principle of dignity of the human being, b) can manage intercultural conflict according to a perspective of hierarchization (personal and community) of values and c) are participative in the construction of a peaceful society open to transcendence.
It is not, in fact, by suppressing religiosity/spirituality in the name of scientific neutrality that one can build a bridge of value between different beliefs or between belief and non-belief. It is only through the category of meaning, the emblem of community between human beings, that we can weave the threads of a social network free from religious fanaticism or furious atheism.
A dialogue is open only if it is supported by sincerity of positions, in which each person can show his thinking, feeling and acting. When The "logo-educator" works in a context of religious education or spiritual growth, he considers this perspective of authenticity and he places the meanings (the values) in a person and in his uniqueness, not only ontological, but also experiential and, above all, relational one. Values are not discovered, values are found and hierarchized. Certainly peace is an “attitude-value” that every religious and spiritual culture must have the right amount of respect for.
Keywords: logotherapy, values, intercultural citizenship, religion, spirituality
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-Bruzzone D. (2001), Autotrascendenza e formazione. Esperienza esistenziale, prospettive pedagogiche e sollecitazioni educative nel pensiero di Viktor E. Frankl, Milano, Vita e Pensiero.
-Fizzotti E. (2005), Nuovi orizzonti di ben-essere esistenziale. Il contributo della logoterapia di V.E. Frankl, Roma, LAS.
-Frankl V.E. (2001), Logoterapia e analisi esistenziale, Brescai, Morcelliana.
-Frankl V.E. (1998), Senso e valori per l’esistenza, Roma, Città Nuova Editrice.
-Inglehart R.F. (2021), Religion's Sudden Decline What's Causing it, and What Comes Next?, Oxford University Press.
THE SCOUT IS A CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. THE CONTRIBUTION OF BADEN-POWELL
The contribution is aimed at presenting Baden-Powell's reflection on the contribution that the scout proposal can offer, while respecting the individual religious affiliation, to citizenship education in a global perspective.In this sense, the scouting contributes to the construction of a culture of peace, educating children to brotherhood, to welcome others belonging to a religion and nationality different from their own.
One of the main objectives underlying the scout proposal is education for citizenship, orientation towards the common good, willingness to offer a personal contribution to building a world that is a little better than it has been found. Baden-Powell has particularly at heart the formation of the good citizen that starts from the moment the child enters the scout group, which is a kind of laboratory and gym where he can experience community life, is trained to participate personally in social life. Baden-Powell was particularly concerned about the formation of the good citizen who starts from the entry of the child in the scout group, which is a kind of laboratory and gym where can experience community life, is trained to participate directly in the social life, to get involved in an
active and progressive way, to seek together with others the common good. Gradually and according to his age, the child learns to offer his contribution in the design and implementation of small and concrete actions in the environment where he lives, through comparison and collaboration with others.The scout lives interpersonal relations in the spirit of brotherhood, discovers the richness of the diversity of the other, he experiences how to deal with conflicts in a positive way, how to search for concrete solutions to overcome difficulties and obstacles, how to take responsibility gaining more and more awareness just act. In the light of these experiences, he is helped to grow in civil and social awareness, living the style of solidarity and legality, the taste of serving others, especially the weakest, in social realities marked by marginalization, discomfort, exploitation, injustice. In this sense the scout lives the active citizenship which is also open to the international dimension, thanks to meetings between Scouts from different parts of the world, the "jamboree" organized a couple of years after the end of World War I (31 July - 7 August 1920) in Olympia (London) and offered every four years to all scouts in the world.
The intention of Baden-Powell is precisely to contribute, through the great scout game, to increase the sense of a responsible citizenship, despite the belief - in fact illusory - that in this way it is concretely possible to avoid the outbreak of the second war world.
The contribution will refer to numerous passages from many of books and articles written by Baden-Powell. In light of today's social context and the challenges from a multicultural and religious perspective, re-reading Baden-Powell still appreciates its educational value today.
RELIGIOUS SENSE AND DIALOGICAL EXPERIENCE AS EDUCATIONAL COMMITMENT. REFLECTIONS IN VIEW OF MONTESSORI, PANIKKAR AND KORCZACK
UNIVERSITA' DI BOLOGNA, Italy
An authentic educational process should lead to learn the beauty of living together, to promote the desire to know the other and to weave solidarity plots of Peace; a process involving the integrity of the person, supprting integrity (spiritual, corporeal, mental and emotional awareness. Educational concerns mean knowledge and action, question what it is necessary to know and what it is necessary to know how to do to promote and preserve integrity in relationships. Peace is an action that expresses full awareness, full decision-making capacity and self-mastery, respecting and considering the Other. As the Panikkarrian reading suggests - recovering its Latin etymological root "alter" - the other is not the adversary, but the other of two, the other part of oneself, that through which one's identity matures in a relational sense. The existential nature of the human being - as well as of every existing form and force - is constitutively relational and unitary. This awareness is the aim of an educational experimentation adherent to the strong and urgent existential questions, projected towards the full realisation of humanity - a quality implicit in the human being, but which needs to be cultivated in order to be able to express itself, as problematised by the human and pedagogical experience of Korczack. Observing the relationality of existence and the unity of mind-body-spirit - valued also within the Montessori pedagogical model sensitive to the construction of peace and knowledge - the religious dimension is grasped in its being a fundamental experience of interconnection; religiosity is an expression of being in a condition of conjunction, connection, communion - as its etymological root, from the Latin re-ligo - helps us to consider. Pedagogical model of Montessori, as well as that of Korczack and Panikkar's cosmo-vision - interwoven in the direction of a commitment to shake up thought, speech and action in support of the quality of Life, rooted on “interbeing”, It is possible to intercept implicit meanings that deserve to be explored in greater depth for their innovative potential in a perspective of education for citizenship, i.e. knowledge of how to live together, which requires the exercise of knowledge, understanding and respect for one's own dignity and that of others, which is never separated from knowledge, understanding and respect for the sacredness of life and therefore from a feeling of care, concern, protection and love. Some themes can be identified and explored for their - radically - transformative value, insofar as they question the meaning of education and the urgency of forming thought, word and action as an intra- and inter-subjective dialogue, fruitful in view of the flowering of humanity.
a. Education to interiority and spirituality
b. Education to the experience of the universality-chorality of the existential story
c. Education to peace and democracy, through dialogue
d. Education to meditation as a practice of silence as a matrix of listening and welcoming
e. Education to experience the unity of body - mind - spirit, as a flowering of humanity
PLURALISM AND INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE AT SCHOOL IN THE PROCESS OF BUILDING A EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIP. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES
Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy
Religious pluralism is a constitutive reality of European society, but the coexistence between the different faiths has not always given rise to dialogue. The social, political and cultural changes of the last decades transformed the geopolitical scenario of religions, generating fertile ground for inter-religious exchange but also potential conflicts. Just think of the change that occurred following the fall of the Berlin Wall (November 9, 1989), the inter-ethnic and religious conflict that tore apart the former Yugoslavia, globalization, the events of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent intensification of the migratory phenomenon. All these historical events produced in European societies a hybridization of cultures, ethnic groups and religious systems such as to cause fear of the continuity of the social bond.
Therefore today, in schools, universities, offices, meeting places, the religious topic is sometimes the subject of debates and controversies, others it is left completely out of public space. But if it is true that religion can represent the place where the person redesigns his identity, today the religious element can constitute the fundamental content of citizenship as an ineliminable dimension of the pluralistic configuration of contemporary society.
In this regard, in recent decades, European institutions have provided Member States with guidelines and principles that guide dialogue and the management of religious pluralism, particularly in the field of education. For this reason, the study aims to investigate some recommendations and resolutions produced by Council of Europe on education in interreligious dialogue at school and on the role of teaching of religions in the construction of European citizenship. For example, Recommendation 2002 12 to Member States on education for democratic citizenship describes the education for democratic citizenship as a factor of social cohesion, mutual understanding, intercultural and interreligious dialogue which favors peaceful and harmonious relations between peoples. In this sense, it is interesting to stress how the initiatives to promote dialogue between institutions and religious communities and within them are often delegated to local realities which are held responsible for making European citizens aware that the mixture of cultures and civilizations contributed and continue to contribute to the construction of Europe, its cultural heritage and its values (Recommendation 170 20051 on intercultural and inter-faith dialogue: initiatives and responsibilities of local authorities).
Yet, if we look at the different European contexts, we realize how the mosaic of educational systems is varied and how the paradigms on the relationship between education and religions are extremely diversified. For this reason, the research also presents different didactic approaches on the management of religious diversity in the Italian school context and focuses, in particular, on the role played by religious actors in the field of teaching/learning from religions, in which the educational system makes use of constant interaction with religious communities.
Finally, we will focus, from a comparative point of view, on some case studies on the approach to religious pluralism in Spain and Bosnia and Herzegovina
EASTERN SPIRITUALITY AND DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP: TEACHING OF RELIGION IN ALDO CAPITINI’S LESSONS (1949-1950)
University of Palermo, Italy
L'OBIETTIVO DELLA PRESENTE RICERCA È RIPRODURRE LA PROPOSTA DIDATTICA E PEDAGOGICA DI ALDO CAPITINI IN MERITO ALL'INSEGNAMENTO DELLA RELIGIONE. E' IL FONDATORE DEL MOVIMENTO ITALIANO NON VIOLENTE E PROPONE UNA NUOVA RELIGIONE ISPIRATA ALLA VISIONE DEL MAESTRO INDIA MAHATMA GANDHI
UTILIZZANDO UN METODO FENOMENOLOGICO ED ERMENEUTICA HO ESAMINATO VARIE FONTI: LETTERARIA (LIBRI, ARTICOLI, LETTERATURA CRITICA), ARCHIVIO (EPISTOLARI, MEMO, APPUNTI) LEGISLATIVO, VISIVI, AUDIOVISIVI, INTERNET.
I RISULTATI DELLA MIA RICERCA: CAPITINI ELABORIAMO UNA “RELIGIONE APERTA” DA INSEGNARE NELLA “SCUOLA DEL FUTURO”, UNA RELIGIONE LAICA CHE STABILISCE UN DIALOGO CON TUTTE LE DIVERSE TRADIZIONI RELIGIOSE E VA OLTRE LA SEPARAZIONE TRA ORIENTE E OCCIDENTE UN DOCUMENTO PREZIOSO ED UTILE PER LA MIA RICERCA SONO STATI POCHI APPUNTI TROVATI NEL CENTRO STUDI DELLA FONDAZIONE ALDO CAPITINI DI PERUGIA, UN LAVORO SCRITTO CHE RIEPILOGA LE LEZIONI ACCADEMICHE DI TEORIA DELL'EDUCAZIONE TENUTE NEL CORSO UNIVERSITARIO DED-1950 SPECIFICO DELLE RELIGIONI ORIENTALI: INDUISMO, BUDDISMO, TAOISMO, SINTOISMO, ISLAMISMO, SUFISMO. QUESTE DIVERSE TRADIZIONI VENGONO INTRODOTTE AGLI STUDENTI DEI CORSI UNIVERSITARI COME RELIGIONI CHE HANNO QUALCOSA IN COMUNE, NON SOLO TRA DI SÉ MA ANCHE IN RELAZIONE CON LE RELIGIONI OCCIDENTALI.
THE CAPITINIAN EDUCATION FOR A HOLISTIC RELIGION, OPEN AND LAIC, WHICH HAS BEEN ELABORATED STARTING FROM THE CONTEST BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN RELIGIONS, CAN BE PROPOSED AS AN EDUCATION FOR PEACE AND FOR SUPPORTING THE WESTERN DEMOCRACIES OF OUR TIMES, AND IT IS SEARCHING A COMMUNE FOUNDATION BEYOND THE RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES, IT RESPECTS THE PLURALISM AND ENCOURAGES THE EDUCATION OF A PLANETARY CITIZENSHIP IN RESPONSE TO THE PRESENT PROCESSES OF GLOBALIZATION.
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CAPITINI, A. (1937). ELEMENTI DI UN’ESPERIENZA RELIGIOSA. BARI: LATERZA.
CAPITINI, A. (1950). CORSO DI PEDAGOGIA. ANNO 1949-50, PISA: VALLERINI.
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TEACHING ON RELIGION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE: FOR A PAIDEIA OF “KNOWING HOW TO LIVE TOGETHER”
Università di Padova, Italy
The question of religious teaching in Italy has in the past been the focus of a debate in which cultural, political and ideological reasons emerged. Today, the conditions have developed for such a debate to be enriched with specifically pedagogical reasons, also starting from a revival of interest in Italian academic pedagogy for religious education in general and for teaching on religion in particular. The publication of a Dossier on the teaching of religion in a multicultural context, published in the journal "Nuova Secondaria Ricerca" (n. 4/2020) was very significant in this regard and was attended by colleagues from several Italian universities, who have approached the subject from a multiplicity of points of view.
There is a growing need to confront an increasingly multicultural social context and the space that religious teaching can occupy in it (Seligman 2014) according to the criteria authoritatively indicated by the Toledo Guiding Principles on Teaching about Religions and Beliefs in Public Schools of 2007. A correct approach to religious teaching can help to build mutual understanding and eliminate stigmas and prejudices (Bruni 2020), in the perspective of a "paideia of knowing how to live together", which also takes into account the specificity of different national cultures and traditions. A further element that is important to consider is the growth and consolidation of experiences of interreligious dialogue increasingly significant and relevant: since the interreligious meeting held in Assisi in 1986, until the historic document signed by Pope Francis and the Grand Imam Al-Tayyeb in Abu Dhabi in 2019 (Tempesta 2020). The dialogical approach to the religious phenomenon is placed in a perspective that goes beyond the "paradigms of suspicion" (Porcarelli 2018), seeking - on the one hand - to offer a religious interpretation of religious experiences (Moscato 2020) and, on the other hand, to offer an interreligious reading of the multicultural context.
In this scenario, it may also be possible to update the current system of religious teaching in Italy (Cicatelli 2015), in such a way as to enhance its intercultural and interreligious openness and strengthen its dialogical potential, in order to develop respectful and inclusive citizenship skills.
Cicatelli S., Guida all’insegnamento della religione cattolica. Secondo le nuove Indicazioni, La Scuola, Brescia 2015.
Porcarelli A., La pedagogia tra le scienze delle religioni, M. Caputo (a cura di), Oltre i “paradigmi del sospetto”? Religiosità e scienze umane, FrancoAngeli, Milano 2018, pp. 143-160.
Porcarelli A. (a cura di), Dossier: L’insegnamento della religione in un contesto multiculturale, “Nuova Secondaria Ricerca”, n. 4, dicembre 2020, pp. 74-368, con contributi di: Moscato, Tempesta, Bruni, Bellelli, Dal Toso, Macale, Cicatelli, Fedeli, Augelli, Castaldi, Simoni, Guetta, Musaio, Pinelli, Caputo e Rompianesi, Bortolotto, Schiedi, Gabbiadini.
Porcarelli A., Nuovi percorsi e materiali per il concorso a cattedra IdR. Insegnanti di Religione, SEI, Torino 2020.
Seligman A. B., Religious education and the challenge of pluralism, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014.