ACTIVE LEARNING AND HYBRID ENVIRONMENTS
University of Innsbruck, Austria
What is Active Learning?
Bonwell and Eison describe active learning strategies as “instructional activities involving students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing1.” In Creating Significant Learning Experiences, L. Dee Fink builds upon Bonwell and Eison’s definition by describing a holistic view of active learning that includes all of the following components: Information and Ideas, Experience, and Reflective Dialogue2. This framework can be a helpful tool to work with students of almost any age.
The framework that active learning offers active can be a helpful tool to enrich the possibilities how students of almost any age…
… encounter (new) information and ideas
… engage with information and ideas
… reflect on their learning
…to meet their learning objective(s).
How can we understand hybrid learning environments?
One thing, that the COVID 19 pandemic has taught us, is the fact that people have left the hermetic boundaries of educational buildings like schools.
The archetypical context of learning is the classroom. However, due to changing educational practices, the stricter concept of the classroom is supplemented by the broader concept of a learning environment. “There is a general consensus in the learning sciences that the context of learning matters and that learning is somehow situated in a setting”3 (Engeström, 2009). “Situated theories of learning in particular emphasise the social, collective and contextual nature of learning”4 (Lave and Wenger, 1991). The notion of a “learning environment” as a broader setting than a classroom, as the context in which learning is situated, has become widespread.
Peter Goodyear (2001) presents a very open definition of HLEs when he states that “a learning environment consists of the physical and digital setting in which learners carry out their activities, including all the tools, documents and other artefacts to be found in that setting. Besides the physical and digital setting, it includes the socio-cultural setting for such activities.” 5
The concept and presented examples of “hybrid learning environments” show how formal, school-based learning and more diverse and informal workplace experiences can be closely connected and combined. The short input lecture offers a framework of new perspectives that can help to understand the complex nature of such environments and basic ideas of how to develop and design these hybrid learning environments.
1 Bonwell, C.C. & Eison, J.A. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 1. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University.
2 Fink, D.L. (2003). Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
3 Engeström, Y. (2009), “From Learning Environments and Implementation to Activity Systems and Expansive Learning”, Actio: An International Journal of Human Activity Theory, 2, 17-33.
4 Lave, J., and Wenger, E. (1991), Situated Learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: University Press.
5 Goodyear, P. (2001), “Effective networked learning in higher education: Notes and guidelines”, in Deliverable 9, Volume 3 of the Final Report to JCALT (Networked Learning in Higher Education Project). Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://csalt.lancs.ac.uk/jisc/docs/ guidelines_final.doc.
LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS APPLICATIONS
1University of Innsbruck, Dept. Spatial Design/studio2, Austria; 2University of Innsbruck, Dept. Experimental Architecture, Austria
The Digital Revolution as a paradigm of the information age has given rise to numerous forms of training, education and adult education. Initially, these e-learning strategies primarily replace classical frontal teaching: one-to-many formats are documented and semantically processed. Increasingly, however, independent forms are developing that attempt to use the specific potential of digital and networked communication.
Feedback loops and integration of social media leads to improved exchange between teachers, and students, and within these groups. Collection and analysis of large amounts of data on learning and teaching processes allow optimization and individual tailoring to students and learning environments1.
It is efficient to present, bundle, and coordinate specific learning content suitable for digitization on information technology platforms2,3. Based on this level of knowledge and development, the special requirements in continuing education for professionally competent persons are addressed. Persons participating in participative processes (i.e. "phase 0" processes) learn to interpret and process the statements and positions of the others involved in a positive way.
We are using tools and strategies of a MOOC to achieve efficient and comprehensive preparation for discourse content. The semantics of terms used are shared and expanded among the trainees.
Involved early in typical situations characterized by group interests, participants are placed in situations where they learn to judge and assess, exchanging and further processing competence and anecdotal feedback4. Purposefully placed physical encounters (i.e. field trips, walk-throughs) enable participants to experience the non-abstractable qualities of architectural design together within the framework of the course, which is predominantly completed independently of location and not synchronously5.
Other didactic approaches of the ERASMUS research project LEA (game, smartphone app, manual for facilitators of Phase 0 events) complement the MOOC approach.
Contemporary architecture for schools that is suitable for new pedagogical practices requires people who, as decision-makers and responsible persons, know and share the relevant concepts of all parties involved6.
Participatory processes appear to be well suited to sketching out an overall picture of concerns in a specific context at an early stage. A prerequisite for this, however, is the expansion of the ability to dialogue about architecture and its perception. Together, the experience of spatial effects is reflected upon and the possibilities of describing them are "grasped".
The aim is to acquire competences in order to 1) be able to operationally understand and productively apply the different terminology from the individual professional fields involved; 2) to anticipate discussion and decision-making situations in order to create positive group dynamics for openness and fairness.
The LEA project strives to anchor the significance and importance of spatial conditions for successful pedagogy in the consciousness of the persons in responsibility.
1 Mayer-Schönberger V., Cukier K. (2014), Learning with Big Data
2 Ko S. (2017, 4thEd.) Teaching Online
3 Zhadko O., Ko S. (2020), Best Practices in Designing Courses with OER
4 Ward K. (2020, 2ndEd.), Researching the City
5 Dünne J., Günzel St. (2012, 7thEd.), Raumtheorie
6 Imms W., Kvan Th. Eds. (2021), Teacher Transition into Innovative Learning Environments
MOBILE - MOBILISING INNOVATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
1Sophia::Academy, Germany; 2ICSadviseurs, The Netherlands; 3Norconsult, Norway
In the cities and metropolitan areas of Europe, approximately 100 billion euros will be invested in school construction in the coming years, which will flexibly combine real and digital learning spaces as sustainable educational buildings of the 21st century (Weyland & Watschinger 2017). Thus, instead of the traditional corridor schools, school buildings with multifunctional, innovative learning environments (ILE) are being created, e.g. learning landscapes, cluster schools, and numerous mixed forms of these new school building types (Montag Foundation 2012). However, teachers who move into a modernised educational building lack experience of how teaching and learning can take place in such spaces. So far, there is neither an application-oriented handbook nor sufficient pedagogical-didactic or scientifically sound evaluations (Imms & Kvan, 2021). Therefore, from Scandinavia to Mediterranean sea teacher-teams currently entering uncharted territory.
An Erasmus+ strategic partnership, called MOBILE (www.learning-space.eu) aims to fill these gaps by investigating the effectiveness of European learning environments and supporting schools to become learning organisations themselves. This requires space to move, both literally and figuratively by the following triad in order to sustainable activate ILE as a 3rd teacher.
1. Look to Tomorrow: Index of Innovative Learning Environments
The aim is to provide everyone involved in education with the broadest possible perspective and to help them make informed choices. The interactive digital tool consists of:
- An autodidactic questionnaire, which challenges to think individually as well as a team in a future-oriented way about the relationship between learning/learning environments,
- A panorama of "Learning Spaces", which provides a broad view of the possibilities that learning environments invented so far in Europe can offer.
2. Learn from Yesterday: Pedagogical Post Occupancy Evaluation (PPOE)
The digital PPOE guideline provides insight into the educational quality of learning environments and focuses on:
- General criteria that determine a learning environment for a learning organization.
- A method, which provides insight into the difference between educational vision (A) and actual situation.
3. Live for Today: Teach the Teacher-Trainers
Increasing the effectiveness of the learning environment has to do both with the quality of the environment itself and making use of opportunities it provides.
- Courses for teacher trainers will make use of the previous components.
- Methods for participatory planning processes for improving the learning environments published are provided under a Creative Commons License (OER).
The strategic partnership consists of partners from NL, NO, and DE: Three consultant agencies for school development, about 100 Technasium schools, a teacher training center and Oslo municipality have the ambition to meet in a future-oriented way by forming a community of practice.
Between the different professions and disciplines intensive interaction is taking place through transnational cooperation, joint workshops, study trips and online-seminars within hermeneutic loops and thoughtful evaluations. An interactive public internet platform (OER), working as a digital learning-, communication and cooperation device is implemented.
Montag Foundation (ed.) 2012, Schulen Planen und Bauen, Jovis, Berlin.
Weyland B., Watschinger, J. (eds.) 2017, Lernen und Raum entwickeln, Klinkhart, Monaco.
Imms W., Kvan T. (eds.) 2021, Teacher Transition into Innovative Learning Environments.
RETHINKING LEARNING SPACES AND TEACHING METHODOLOGIES BY CONNECTING COMMUNITIES DURING THE COVID19-PERIOD: INCLUSIVE VISION AND RESEARCH-TRAINING IN ON-LINE WORKSHOP
ADi (Associazione Docenti e Dirigenti Scolastici italiani)
The research-training involved twelve Italian schools, located in the autonomous province of Trento, joined together in a community to rethink how to re-organize both the school spaces and the teaching methods in an inclusive perspective in Covid-19 emergency.
The schools: IC Cavalese (8 primary little schools and one middle school) and IC Rovereto 3 (2 primary schools, one middle school with recently immigrated children with SEN).
The research-training is significant to propose a learning spaces re-organization in order to personalize learning and teaching in Covid-19 emergency.
A group of teachers of each school were involved. The design process was carried out both on-line activities and at school design.
The focus is on two questions. Is it possible to:
- redesign classroom in an innovative vision through both on-line training and design activities at school during Covid19 period?
- overcome most of the obstacles to design learning spaces during the pandemic?
A critical approach induced teachers to find strategies to redesign learning spaces through reflexive modalities and design project. It had three phases:
- Plenary workshop: some information and many images of innovative schools were given to the teachers divided into 5 groups.
- Three activities were proposed: brainstorming; diamond ranking; case study on the classroom 49 sqm floor plan.
- Collaborative design: each group of teachers carried out in their school the classrooms project in an innovative vision following the Guidelines by Ministry of Health.
- Individual meeting: each group presented, discussed and reflecting on the design and on any other adjustments and suggestions.
Final Plenary Meeting.
- Final plenary meeting: each group presented their project proposals for re-organizing classrooms.
Parallel to the design process, questionnaires were given. Some considerations emerged on the vision that each teacher had of the school and the expectations.
Contribution and findings.
The proposals presented by teachers were innovative in terms of organizing spaces, distances to be maintained and methodology, inclusion and didactic differentiation.
Asquini, G. (2018) (Ed.). La Ricerca-Formazione. Temi, esperienze e prospettive. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
CAST (2011). Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. Wakefield. Ma
Fianchini, M. (2019). Renewing middle schools facilities. Switzerland: Springer.
Holt, D.T. Armenakis A.A., Field, H.S., Harris S.G. (2007). Readiness for Organizational Change: The Systematic Development of a scale. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43, 2, pp. 232-255.
Imms, W., Cleveland, B., Fisher, K., (Eds), (2016). Evaluating Learning Environments: Snapshots of Emerging Issues, Methods and Knowledge. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Jonassen, D.H, Land, S.M. (Eds), (2012). Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environment. New York: Routlegde.
Lippman, P.C. (2010). Evidence–Based Design of Elementary and Secondary schools. Hoboken: John Wilwy & Sons, Inc.
Marcarini, M. (2021). Pedarchitecture: Which Learning Environments for the Personalisation of Teaching and Learning? In Imm, W., Kvan, T., Teacher Transition into Innovative Learning Environments. A Global Perspective. Singapore: Springer.
Tomlinson, C.A. (2014). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria: ASCD.
Woolner, P. (2015) (Ed.). School Design Together. New York: Routledge.
SPACE MATTERS - A TRANSDICINIPLARY AND CO-CREATIVE SETTING TO “UPDATE” SPATIAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
Architektur & Entwicklungsräume, Switzerland
Space is the body language of an (School) organization (Doorley; Witthoft, 2012). What kind of space does education need in the 21st century? How can existing school buildings and traditional pedagogical processes of the 19th and 20th century be improved by using current knowledge of the interrelationship between learning and learning spaces? How do digital and virtual teaching and learning formats impact the usage of the school building and the classroom? Which new impulses can be derived for the conception, planning, and re-/construction of school buildings?
The new research area of the school- and learning space development (cf. PULS+, 2020) deals with these questions, which involve school stakeholders in a participative setting in the conception and planning of learning spaces.
This paper presents working approaches and results from the Learning-SPACE-Lab (LSL) (Hammon, 2020), derived from research and practice issues above and shows examples by photo and film documentation.
An LSL works with a transdisciplinary and explorative learning and research environment by participation and co-creation. Aims of the school- and teaching development are linked with pupil’s future school ideas of learning and space. In a project week ideas are first developed and sketched, then brought to life by small models. By the support of teachers and university students (interdisciplinary course) models of the pupils are "translated" into prototypes and build in scale 1:1, to test and evaluate the new ideas. The project concludes with a presentation of the created prototypes in front of the whole school assembly, press, and media (Hammon, 2020 https://vimeo.com/444197398; https://vimeo.com/298555099 )
LSL is part of school-SPACE-development and works simultaneously on up to five levels:
- project-school: pupils, teaching team, principal, and project-architect
- university: interdisciplinary course for architecture and pedagogy students, action learning, real-world laboratories (cf. Scharmer, 2019)
- hospitation field of advanced vocational training: teachers, architects, school administration
- product development
An LSL works with four perspectives for conception and planning P.O.S.T. (cf. Ninnemann, 2018):
I. Physical-material space: interior design, furniture, architecture
II. Organisational-structural space: organisation and school development
III. Social-interactive space: social learning formats, teaching development
IV. Technical-virtual space: ICT
Over the past ten years, LSL has been applied and developed in over 20 different projects cooperating with PULS, schools, communes, administrations, universities, and companies. The program is utilised in various areas like school-, vocational-, and university education in the domains of pedagogy, architecture, and administration, as well as in research and product development.
It can be seen that including school stakeholders in the conception and planning of school architecture with transdisciplinary and co-creative processes like the Learning-SPACE-Lab improves learning spaces and deepen the processes of learning space development.
Doorley, S., Witthoft, S., Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford University & Kelley, D. (2012). Make Space: How to Set the Stage for Creative Collaboration. Wiley.
Hammon, A. (2020). Reallabor [Videos]. https://erasmus.pulsverbund.eu/reallabore/
Ninnemann, K. (2018). Innovationsprozesse und Potentiale der Lernraumgestaltung an Hochschulen. Waxmann.
PULS+. (2020). PULSerasmus Ziele. https://erasmus.pulsverbund.eu/ziele/
Scharmer, O. (2019, 30. April). Vertical Literacy: Reimagining the 21st-Century University. Medium. https://medium.com/presencing-institute-blog/vertical-literacy-12-principles-for-reinventing-the-21st-century-university-39c2948192ee