"THROUGH THE SCREEN": REFLECTIONS ON ONLINE TRAINING EXPERIENCE ABOUT DIDACTIC AND ASSESSMENT USE OF BOARD GAMES
University of Messina, Italy
The pandemic period faced us with the challenge of supporting teachers' professionalism through online tools, in order to expand their professional, pedagogical/didactic, and technological knowledge (Mishra & Koehler, 2008). The importance of using games in terms of learning is now consolidated (e.g. Bateson, 1956; Huizinga, 1938) and subject to an ongoing research work, which is highlighting its current role in teaching (Ligabue, 2020). It is therefore interesting to expand this theoretical framework through a more in-depth analysis of the use of board-games in online modality. Therefore, research questions are: a) how much are teachers available and aware of the impact on their teaching and professionalism by a course on the use of board games used in online modality? b) how can we consider a possible improvement of their assessment and self-assessment practices? "Il gioco fa scuola” is a training opportunity for the development of teaching and assessment through the use of board-games in digital format. The 20-hours asynchronous course consisted of 12 modules. At the beginning and at the end of the course the beliefs about the use of the board game as a didactic tool were revealed with a questionnaire. At the end of each module, some closed-ended items made it possible to detect the acquisition of the contents of the module. At the end of the course, the realization of a project work and the so-called "Palette of skills" has been proposed, a tool for self-assessment and self-regulation of own teaching, in order to assess and provide feedback to students regarding skills acquired during the course. The contribution will present the results of a survey carried out on project works, on the skill self-assessment tool and on questionnaires completed by 70 teachers of different school-levels, as well as the presentation of the project and its evaluation system. From the mixed-methods analysis results - made using the NVivo and R software - first results are: a) the teachers expressed a general appreciation for ashyncronous online modality; b) a substantial awareness of the improvement of own professionalism emerges; c) the use of board-games is perceived as an useful tool not only for improving students' learning, but also to assess the skills acquired; d) the proposed self-assessment process was found to be tiring, but important for the process of improving own professionalism; e) the receipt of feedback at the end of the course for the improvement of practices was particularly appreciated. Eventually, we will present a reflection about a new concept of "table game" and about using feedback methods activated during the process put in place by teachers with board-game.
Bateson G. (1956), The message “This Is Play”, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, Trad. it.“Questo non è un gioco”, Milano, Raffaello Cortina Editore, 1996.
Huizinga J. (1938), Homo ludens, Haarlem, Tjeenk Willink.
Koehler, M. J. & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing technological pedagogical knowledge. In AACTE (Eds.), The handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge for educators. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Ligabue A. (2020), Didattica ludica – Competenze in gioco, Trento, Erikson.
“EMERGENCY REMOTE TEACHING” IN ITALY AND NORWAY: EMPIRICAL RESEARCH FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHER TRAINING
1Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy; 2University of Agder, Norway
As schools closed due to the Covid-19 pandemic, online learning opportunities became crucial for the education of millions of students worldwide.
In most countries, the transition from face-to-face teaching to distance learning took place in an emergency situation. Consequently, the sudden change was not preceded by organizational, technical, nor didactic reflections. Schools, teachers, pupils and their families found themselves facing an entirely new situation.
What has happened, and is still happening, in the face of the Covid-19 crisis has certainly led to inconveniences in a sector as essential to society as that of school education. However, the experience, if analyzed with the lens of educational research, can provide interesting insights on which to reflect and work at the policy level.
It is interesting to observe how school teachers have managed to deal with the emergency by using their digital competence. We assume, based on the current literature, that an educator's digital competence go far beyond technical skills, to seek a balance between different components. We also assume that the opportunities digital technologies offer go well beyond temporary solutions during the Covid crisis. «Digital technology allows us to find entirely new answers to what people learn, how people learn, where people learn and when they learn» (OECD, 2020). Having said that, it is important to say that these opportunities, to be truly such, require teachers to have specific preparation to integrate face-to-face teaching and distance teaching, that is acquired with training and experience.
Our article aims to analyze the results of the empirical research produced in Italy and Norway on “emergency remote teaching” during the pandemic. We will consider quantitative and qualitative studies exploring experiences, perceptions and opinions of schools, teachers and students, in addition to policy papers issued by international, national and local institutions. Starting from the analysis and comparison of data gathered in and about the two countries, considerations will be drawn on the digital competence of teachers and on the areas that most need interventions at the level of teacher training and education policies.
Vv. Aa. (2021). La DaD in emergenza: vissuti e valutazioni degli insegnanti italiani. Scelte metodologiche e primi risultati nazionali. Lecce: Pensa Multimedia.
Caspersen, J., Hermstad, I. H., Hybertsen, I. D., Lynnebakke, B., Vika, K. S., Smedsrud, J., & Federici, R. A. (2021). Koronapandemien i grunnskolen-håndtering og konsekvenser.
Censis (2020). Italia sotto sforzo. Diario della transizione 2020 <https://www.censis.it/sites/default/ files/downloads/Diario%20della%20Transizione.pdf>.
Federici, R. A., & Vika, K. S. (2020). Spørsmål til Skole-Norge: Analyser og resultater fra Utdanningsdirektoratets spørreundersøkelse til skoleledere, skoleeiere og lærere under korona-utbruddet 2020.
Gudmundsdottir, G. B., & Hathaway, D. M. (2020). " We Always Make It Work": Teachers' Agency in the Time of Crisis. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 239-250.
Mælan, E. N., Gustavsen, A. M., Stranger-Johannessen, E., & Nordahl, T. (2021). Norwegian students’ experiences of homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 36(1), 5-19.
OECD (2020). Learning remotely when schools close: how well are students and schools prepared? Insights from PISA <www.oecd.org>.
DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP AND PROFESSIONAL DIGITAL COMPETENCE IN A POSTDIGITAL AGE: TEACHER EDUCATORS’ VIEWS AND POTENTIALITIES
Umeå University, Sweden
Educating future citizens is part of teachers’ work for which student teachers need skills and knowledge. Digitalization in society places new demands on teacher education institutions (TEIs) and teacher educators (TEs) because it is changing citizenship and the democratic landscape. Young people’s civic engagement is becoming increasingly more digital while challenges to democracy are augmented, for instance post-truth disinformation campaigns, digital surveillance, and ‘echo chambers’.
This paper reports from a postdigital perspective on the early results of a case study of TEs’ conceptualizations of digital citizenship at seven TEIs spread geographically across Sweden. Based on semi-structured interviews with 16 TEs who teach a module on democracy and education mandatory for all student teachers (General Education Studies, first semester), this study examines TEs’ views of digital citizenship and the professional digital competence (PDC) required for TEs to teach for digital citizenship. The results show that TEs generally agreed that the digitalization of society impacts how school is to foster democratic citizens and that this requires specific dimensions of TE and teacher PDC. Digital citizenship tended to be narrowly conceptualized as pertaining to source criticism while other aspects such as skills and knowledge for democratic participation, critical engagement, and online security were expressed less often. Although many TEs agreed that it is important to address digitalization in relation to the democratic assignment, they were uncertain in regard to if, how, and when TEIs prepare student teachers accordingly. When asked about digitalization as part of student teachers’ mandatory module on democracy and education, this was addressed coincidentally, if at all. TEs also viewed lack of time as a problem, citing subject matter, time allotted, and no clear demands on teacher PDC specifically relating to citizenship or the democratic assignment among the National Teacher Program Goals. Thus, although TEs generally believe they have an important role in preparing student teachers for the democratic assignment in in a digitalized school, it is unclear what dimensions of TE and teacher PDC this requires, and different emphases may impact TEI equivalence and subsequently pupils’ citizenship formation. Therefore, TEIs need to ensure that TEs have the PDC needed to include questions of digital citizenship in their teaching. The study also suggests that TEs need to be involved in continuous professional development (CPD) in PDC and digital citizenship in relation to questions concerning for instance course content, teaching, and program structure.
These results echo another case study by Lindfors, Pettersson & Olofsson (2021) presented in this paper, which focuses on how TEs view conditions to ensure that student teachers graduate with the PDC needed to work in a digitalized school. This study shows that TEs need CPD in PDC for the dual didactic task of teaching to teach, including the ability to help student teachers position the teaching profession in relation to digitalization in postdigital society. In this regard, TEI leadership and policy support are important, which mirrors the importance of TE CPD in PDC and review of course content and program structure identified by the first study.
DIGITAL COMPETENCE SELF-ASSESSMENT IN FUTURE PRIMARY EDUCATION TEACHERS
University of Salerno, Italy
The development of teachers’ digital competence represents one of the main purposes of the Italian National Plan for Digital Education (L. 107/2015). According to this model, teachers must be able to support students in a digital education process. This is also recommended by the Council of the European Union which in May 2018 updated the Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, defining the digital competence. Before the existing sanitary emergency, that had been impacting many qualities of life and the education processes, was already known the significance of a suitable level of digital pedagogical competence of teachers (Bocconi et al., 2018); the rapid digitalization in the education practices, to contain the spread of Covid19 Pandemic, has intensified the debate over the digital competence promotion: digital competence is essential for the students’ active citizenship (Carretero et al., 2017) and, related to instruction, for effective teaching for meaningful, differential and personalized learning (Koehler & Mishra, 2009; Bonaiuti et al., 2017). The present sanitary emergency clears up the requisite for all teachers to have suitable competence in the use of digital technologies, as ICT has become essential resources as reported by the Guidelines for Integrated Digital Teaching (DDI) (Trinchero, 2020). Some important results have been achieved, but the possibilities for professional improvement in teachers’ digital skills are well-defined. For example, research refers that teachers have significant difficulties in the design phase, identifying substantial, circumscribable, and verifiable objectives in relation to the development of digital competence (Ceccacci, 2020). For educators, is important to understand that you are not digitally competent if you do not have a realistic idea of the mechanisms behind running software or a network connection, if you do not know how to critically read and select textual information, if you cannot construct hierarchies and tables or if you do not understand the distinction between real and virtual (Calvani & Menichetti, 2015). In fact, as known, digital competence is not identified exclusively with the techniques and/or technological practices (cutting, pasting, uploading videos, etc.) of the so-called digital natives (Prensky, 2001).
The training of teachers in didactic innovation, especially the ability to convert the use of technology into a pedagogical and didactic sense, is considered a priority objective. This research wants to investigate the digital competence in future teachers for Primary Education. Quantitative study research project is still in progress: it involves about 220 Primary Teacher Education students attending the Educational Technologies Laboratory which will be asked to fill in the DigCompEdu Check-In self-assessment questionnaire. Statistical data analysis will present a general indication for further educational activities oriented to the development of digital competence in future primary education teachers.
HOW DO TEACHERS’ DIGITAL COMPETENCE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS TECHNOLOGY AFFECT TECHNOLOGY USE IN EDUCATION?
Istituto Universitario Federale per la Formazione Professionale (IUFFP), Svizzera
Teachers’ digital Competence (DC) is one of the necessary prerequisites and factors contributing to an effective integration of technology in teaching and learning, as well as teachers’ attitude towards technology (ATT) and digital infrastructure access (Christensen & Knezek, 2001). While previous studies have already established evidence that teachers’ DC and ATT directly influence the use of digital tools in education practice, little attention has been paid to the interaction between these factors. The interplay of DC and ATT might determine teachers’ use of technology and, although DC and ATT have a direct effect on digital tool use for teaching, their mutual interaction should be also considered. Thus, we hypothesized that teachers’ DC directly affects technology use in teaching, and this effect is moderated by ATT.
Data were collected through an online survey completed voluntarily by teachers of Swiss vocational schools. The analytical sample include 2164 teachers (46.6% male, 45.7% female). Based on the Digital Competence Framework for Educators (DigCompEdu, see Redecker & Punie, 2017) we used a 22-items self-report scale to assess teachers’ DC. The DC total score was compound with the sum of 22 items (0 – 88) (M = 45.56, SD = 15.33); teachers reported their level of agreement (on a scale from 1 to 6) with four statements about ATT and higher level of agreement correspond to more positive attitude (α = .809, M = 4.41, SD = 1.00); technology use for teaching and learning was assessed asking teachers to indicate on a 5-point Likert scale from Never (1) to Very often (5) the frequency of use of 21 different digital tools (M = 2.54, SD = 0.63). To evaluate the impact of DC, ATT and their interaction on technology use, a moderated regression was conducted using PROCESS macro for SPSS.
The model explains the 41% of variance in technology use (R2 = .413, F (3, 2160) = 505.828, p <.001). Both DC (b = .032, se = .003, p<.001) and ATT (b =.088, se =.030, p=.001) significantly affect technology use by teachers. The interaction is significant (p =.021) and the simple slope analysis reveals that for lower level of DC, teachers with more positive attitude use technology more frequently than teachers with less positive attitude. When DC is low, the positive ATT moderates the relationship between DC e and technology use. The results confirm our hypothesis: teachers’ digital competence interacts with attitude in determining the digital tool use in class.
Christensen, R., & Knezek, G. (2001). Instruments for assessing the impact of technology in education. Computers in the Schools, 18(2-3), 5-25.
Redecker, C., & Punie, Y. (2017). European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators: DigCompEdu. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2760/159770