Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
D2S2T2: Maritime Logistics and Port Operations II
Thursday, 24/Feb/2022:
1:30pm - 2:30pm

Session Chair: Gralf-Peter Calliess

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An appraisal of the Northern European LNG bunker ship fleet

Ross, Antje1; Lange, Kerstin2

1National Organisation Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology, Germany; 2Jade University of Applied Sciences, Germany

LNG as ship fuel is an emerging market. LNG infrastructure is a prerequisite for the uptake of LNG technology. One important element of the LNG infra-structure are LNG bunker ships. By global comparison, Northern Europe is a region with dense traffic of LNG vessels. The regional bunker ship fleet con-sists of several units in operation and numerous further ones on order. The ope-rational profile, assessed based on AIS data for the months June to September 2019, confirms that LNG as ship fuel is still a niche market. Ship-to-ship LNG deliveries are concentrated in several hotspots. The fleet of LNG vessels sup-plied by the Northern European fleet of LNG bunker ships is rather diverse in terms of ship types. The LNG bunker ships of larger carrying capacity also en-gage in fee- dering LNG to smaller-scale LNG terminals. With a future denser net of LNG infrastructure and a larger LNG bunker ship fleet, LNG bunker ships are expected to specialize increasingly with in services they supply.

Investigating the Requirements of Automated Vehicles for Port-internal Logistics of Containers

Rose, Hendrik Wilhelm1; Lange, Ann-Kathrin2; Hinckeldeyn, Johannes1; Jahn, Carlos2; Kreutzfeldt, Jochen1

1Institute for Technical Logistics, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany; 2Institute for Maritime Logistics, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

With its potential of increasing economic efficiency, safety and process reliability automated driving offers substantial benefits for road freight logistics. Limited by technical and regulatory hurdles, first use cases of automated driving in logistics are in pilot testing stage on private areas or include traffic scenarios with fixed, foreseeable environmental conditions. These conditions partially exist in seaports. This article addresses the feasibility and specific requirements of automated trucks when implemented in seaport systems. A hybrid study consisting of a semi-structured interview survey and an extended project review is conducted to analyze the applicability of fully automated vehicles for the transportation of containers in port areas and its resulting requirements. Firstly, a review of currently existing automated road freight projects and their findings about container transportation is given. Secondly, port-related requirements for automated road freight transportation are derived as a result of the interview survey. The authors find main requirements in the technical feasibility, the operation of the vehicles as well as the organizational and process integration into the port system.

Unmanned vessels and the law

Lange, Eva Ricarda

Universität Bremen, Germany

Unmanned and autonomous vessels are a multi-disciplinary research topic. The related legal research analyses international maritime law and depicts several legal challenges to be met. The article provides an overview of the legal literature, focusing on three aspects concerning the commercial ship-ping industry. First, the legal status of unmanned and autonomous vessels in maritime law will be discussed. Almost unanimously, such vessels are con-sidered as ‘ships’ within the scope of maritime law. Second, the minimum safe manning requirement governed by several conventions will be exam-ined. The main issue is whether the statutory provisions prevent unmanned operations at all, or whether a more favourable interpretation can be applied. Third, the duty to maintain a proper lookout will be examined. Scholars are reluctant to interpret the respective rules broadly and call for amendments considering the technical peculiarities.

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