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Container Flow Generation for Maritime Container Terminals
Kastner, Marvin; Grasse, Ole; Jahn, Carlos
Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Institute of Maritime Logistics, Germany
In maritime logistics, mathematical optimization and simulation are widely-used methods for solving planning problems and evaluating solutions. When putting these solutions to test, extensive and reliable data are urgently needed but constantly scarce. Since comprehensive real-life data are often not available or are classified as sensitive business data, synthetic data generation is a beneficial way to rectify this deficiency. Even institutions which already own comprehensive container flow data are dependent on synthetic data, due to the need to adapt and test their business models to uncertain future developments. A synthetic data generator that creates incoming and outgoing containers from the perspective of a maritime container terminal has already been proposed. However, since its publication more than 15 years have passed and the industry has changed. This justifies to rethink, rework, and improve the existing solution. This paper presents a synthetic container flow generator which allows the user to create synthetic but yet realistic data of container flows for maritime container terminals. After the introduction and motivation, this paper provides an overview about the state of the art of synthetic data generators. Then, the conceptual model of the generator is presented. Furthermore, an exemplary visual validation of the generated output data is shown. The paper closes with a discussion and outlook on planned future developments of the software.
Simulation-based port storage dimensioning to mitigate operational instability
Triska, Yuri; Frazzon, Enzo Morosini
Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil
Port storage is an important resource in port operations, complex to manage and increasingly scarce. Considering the great disturbance in port operations due to lack of storage, this paper aims to propose a simulation-based ap-proach for dimensioning the storage of port terminals. Discrete event simula-tion (DES) was applied in a test case of a container terminal, whose scope contains truck gates, container yard and ship berths. First, operational stability regimes were identified, which are dependent on the availability of stor-age static capacity. This availability, instead of directly affecting mean operational indicators, is related to the probability of storage shortage over time. Later, an approach for dimensioning port storage by means of simulation was proposed, which is based on recurrence time for a maximum required storage in the year. This approach is oriented to statistics and generalizable for port terminals with different characteristics. The results of this work may assist port managers to plan terminals with different cargo types, providing greater assertiveness of investment, minimizing the occurrence of congestion and hence improving port performance.
Integration of Renewable Energies at Maritime Container Terminals
Schütze, Felix; Schwientek, Anne Kathrina; Grasse, Ole; Jahn, Carlos
Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany
Maritime container terminals play an important role in global supply chains. In addition to the rapid handling of containers, the reduction of CO2 emissions is also increasingly crucial for terminal operators. This can be achieved by integrating renewable sources such as photovoltaic or wind energy. While energy supply and demand must be in balance, the amount of energy produced through renewable sources cannot be controlled as it depends exclusively on variable weather conditions. One option for efficient use of renewable energy sources is to modify energy consumption by intelligently controlling processes.
This study aims to answer the question to what extent energy intensive consumption processes at container terminals can be adapted to a volatile energy supply. A discrete event simulation study is conducted to analyze handling processes by quay cranes as main energy consumers depending on the availability of photovoltaic energy. Therefore, the operating times of quay cranes are partially limited to daylight hours. Only a low number of quay cranes is deliberately deployed when a time window occurs between the predicted end of loading of the vessel and a departure time of the vessel determined by the tidal range.
The simulation results show that by flexibly using certain quay cranes only during daylight hours the percentage of energy produced by renewable resources can be increased by up to 50 %. As a result, handling-related CO2 emissions can be reduced. The study offers an approach to a sustainable energy supply on terminals by reconciling energy use and environmentally friendly generation.