Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

 
 
Session Overview
Date: Monday, 03/Aug/2020
9:00am - 9:15amDay 1 Welcome: Carole Bilson, President, Design Management Institute
 
9:15am - 10:00amMonday Keynote
 
 

Future of Design Education: Closing the Gap

Karel Vredenburg

Director, Global Academic Programs, IBM Design

Design education is often out of alignment with the needs of today's world. Seven years ago when IBM rebooted their design program and started hiring 2,500 designers, a three-month ‘bootcamp’ was created for new hires. Dubbed the 'missing semester,’ it was designed to close gaps in education and ready employees for the world of work. IBM also developed product team and executive education. Since then, IBM has collaborated with top schools across the globe to create a more aligned approach. This session with Karel Vredenburg, who has led Design worldwide at IBM for most of his three decades with the company, will outline the experience, describe the challenges, and discuss progress IBM has made in ‘closing the gap.'

 
10:00am - 11:00amTrack 1 Session 1: Design Research-Led Innovation
 
 

The outside-inside-out workshop for the innovation of meaning

Satoru Goto, Fei Yitong, Kazaru Yaegashi

Ritsumeikan University, Japan

This study aims to develop a workshop for the Innovation of Meanings (IoM) targeted at an engineer. This integrates a vision-driven and user-centered approach defined as an inside-out and outside-in approach. Designers’ ongoing openness or unique mindset constantly updates not only their knowledge and skills but also their own “being.” Designer practice is described as a continuous loop between inside-out and outside-in. Thus, the inside-out and outside-in approach should be discussed as an integrated practice, and not as one that is separated.

The workshop was conducted in the context of the Japanese manufacturing of automobile interior components. The results show that obtaining sociocultural knowledge from outside at the initial stage contributes to fostering the engineer’s attitude to creating the vision from inside. Here, creating vision from inside depends on the knowledge accumulated through an individual’s past experiences. Some scholars indicate that professional and experienced designers generate an initial idea based on their personal perspective, established by the individual experience acquired through their multiple projects. Thus, this study highlights that outside-in is the driver to create vision from inside-out, and thus the outside-inside-out process is better.



Simulating collective creativity in a digital environment

Jo'Anne Langham, Neil Paulsen

University of Queensland, Australia

Idea generation and brainstorming is most effective when conducted in group situations and in person. Physical attendance at gatherings for co-creation has many limitations. However, the digital environment provides many opportunities to co-create remotely. In this paper, we report an online experiment to assess the impact of physical isolation and lack of interpersonal interaction on the effectiveness of ideation. Our intention was to determine if idea generation mechanisms could be simulated digitally, allowing greater access to a wide audience to engage in problem solving and creative ideation. Results revealed that unusual and novel ideas occurred in approximately 53% of cases in the final step of the ideation simulation. The generated ideas were more sophisticated and included improvement in all cases compared to the pre-session control activity. This experiment reveals that ideation can be significantly improved in an online environment with the correct stimulus and with the appropriate process and feedback mechanisms. The use of digital brainstorming has the potential to harness the collective thinking of individuals in organisations as well as solutions co-created with the wider community. Further research is required to understand the potential of crowdsourced ideation.



The challenge of integrating data analysis and design thinking: a case study from a Japanese big data company

Yuriko Sawatani1, Marie Goto2, Katsumi Ishizuka3

1NUCB Business School, Japan; 2Design for All; 3Yahoo Japan

The fusion of data analysis and human-centered design is an important issue. In this paper, we share the "future creation service design program" that is developed with companies and fuses data utilization and design thinking. The company offers a next-generation leader development program called "Academia" to employees and external candidates. The program is roughly divided into five parts: "Hypothesis for the future," "User understanding from fieldwork," "Idea creation," "Data strategy," and "Business plan." The key points are fieldwork, data strategy, and leadership development through all programs.

Using the questionnaire surveys and activity data conducted during the program, we analyzed the relationship between changes in participants' motives and the degree of pivoting of ideas and the content of online and offline discussions. As a result, it was found that the degree of participants 'motivation and idea pivot for better results is influenced not only by the team diversity such as participants' experience and gender but also by their leadership. Besides, the analysis of the content and the interactions revealed the type of leadership that produces excellent results. Finally, we discuss the research areas for adapting data analysis to future design programs.



Spinning in helices: design and the question of value

Philip Ely1, Louis Geneste2

1School of Design and the Built Environment, Curtin University, Australia; 2School of Management, Curtin University, Australia

Whilst those who practice, research or teach in design are cognisant of the agency of the discipline and its effectiveness for situational change, potential commissioners or clients of design are still to be persuaded of its worth. A number of recent attempts to measure the effectiveness of design have helpfully reignited an interest in design’s value to commercial and societal interests, yet such models for evaluation are not unified to a point where different types of organisations – ranging from the commercially competitive to the socially motivated – can apply them to understand the value of particular design interventions. This paper develops a framework for analysis of the knowledge value of design to an organisation or society, building on the theoretical model of the quintuple helix and ‘modalities of knowledge’ respectively and then applies this analytical frame to ten design (research and practice) projects conducted over a twenty-four-month period. The paper concludes with recommendations on how such a framework – the Design Value Helix - may be developed for future analysis of design value for research, business and societal use.

 
11:00am - 11:40amTrack 1 Session 2
 
 

Exploring Communication and Collaboration in Two Multi-Stakeholder Design Thinking Tracks

Claudia Louisa Adriana van den Boom, Rens. G. A. Brankaert, Yuan Lu

University of Technology Eindhoven, Netherlands, The

Difficulties in social interaction and communication may arise when stakeholders from various organizations and backgrounds collaborate. This might lead to frustration and may even lead to project failure. However, collaboration is necessary to address wicked problems.

To investigate collaboration, the interaction between stakeholders should be understood as well as their value and contribution. Communication is crucial in this, and by examining and supporting communication in multi-stakeholder processes, we might enhance collaboration.

For this study, we followed two multi-stakeholder Design Thinking tracks focusing on innovations for youth services. These two tracks, of five multi-stakeholder meetings each, were observed, recorded, and transcribed to find facilitators and barriers in collaboration through a qualitative inductive approach.

Findings suggest stakeholders tend to share their knowledge and skills. Moreover, stakeholders used synonyms and analogies to create a common ground for conceptual thinking. Three practical guidelines were formulated, based on the data.

The first practical guideline refers to the use of frames of references by participants. Frames of references were used during the ideation phase to explain a concept by example of a familiar concept, by comparing a concept to an already existing concept, and by linking to examples derived from experiences. The second practical guideline suggests that stakeholders actively look for shared opinions and ideas to build consensus. The third practical guideline refers to the tendency to share knowledge and skills linked to the participant’s discipline.

Based on the findings a tool was designed: Behind the Box, to illustrate how the guidelines could be applied to enhance communication and collaboration in a multi-stakeholder design process.



The Bonding Gap Between Proficient Designers and Their Prototypes

Birgit Jobst1,2, Katja Thoring1,2, Petra Badke-Schaub1

1Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands; 2Anhalt University, Germany

In order to investigate how far young design professionals are aware of the value of prototyping, we conducted a survey study with 54 proficient designers (all with a completed Bachelor’ degree and an average of two years of professional experience) and in-depth interviews with ten outstanding designers (at least 15 years of professional experience). We included questions about the perception, use and assessment of prototyping in their practice. The survey results revealed a tendency that young design professionals were not able to make use of all benefits of their prototyping activity. They did not show a strong attachment to prototyping. To further integrate and understand these findings, we conducted in-depth interviews with ten outstanding designers, which indicated significant differences in comparison with the proficient designers. The benefits and values of prototyping were much more appreciated and internalised by the outstanding designers. In contrast, the proficient designers did not use prototyping in a detailed way to reflect on the incorporated design idea. They did not reflect on their prototypes to reduce the complexity of the problem. Overall, they did not appear to have supportive experiences with prototyping and seem to perceive prototyping rather as a required necessity. Proficient designers use prototyping activities but seem to fail to understand its full value. We call this phenomenon the ‘bonding gap’. Our study findings call for new approaches in educating design professionals. We identified a need for innovative tools or better on-the-job training fostering the reflection on prototypes and thus improve the designers’ capability to assess and judge an idea’s potential.



Recognizing Strategic and Operational Differences in Product Design Praxis: Workflows for Innovative Product Development

Wayne Chung

Carnegie Mellon University, USA

Studio-based design processes and design thinking have had an ongoing impact on a broad range of industries and institutions. The manner in which the design field addresses a problem results in innovative output or enables teams to think and work in more innovative ways. As design thinking and processes are introduced to non-design fields, the generally recognized double-diamond design process is used to represent the intended strategic design workflow. This allows viewers to imagine a diverging and converging path to success. However, the scale and description in which it represents the design process provides a relatively over-simplified template. And with any discipline or craft, there exists an operational method with nuanced depth and details on how and why the practice of design has been an imagined panacea for change states of people, organizations, and industries.

This paper is necessary to delineate the differences in the varying conceptual scales of design thinking, working, and outputs in relation to strategic planning and operational activities. This paper will do this by describing how the design process is used and visually represented in traditional studio-based practice. It will also show how the lack of current over-simplified design processes' specificity does a disservice to both designers and non-designers who need more detailed operational modes of working or post-project reflection. The ‘magic’ of design is not limited to the discipline itself. In actuality, the blend of disciplines enables the full potential of the design process to reveal itself. And the proposed design matrix allows for viewers to understand the varied conceptual scales of actions and output in relation to a team or individual.

This operational design matrix describes the activities and outputs conducted for product design. This visual method can be utilized in planning stages, current or just-in-time work stages, or post-project evaluations to reflect on design decisions. The ability to recognize particular activities and output that each member of a team can perform in a design process is paramount to understanding operational decisions in concert with meta-level strategic planning. And the ability to utilize an agreed-upon language and a visual common denominator between team members in a collaborative environment set the stage for higher-level understanding and higher potential in synergies and innovative progress.

This paper will present a combination of case studies from prior experiences managing interdisciplinary teams for open-ended, complex product design and user experience problems. The collaborative project examples will primarily include an information technology consulting company, Cognizant corporation as the supporting case study material for this paper.

 
11:40am - 12:00pmDay 1: Morning Q&A
 
12:00pm - 12:30pmDay 1: Break
 
12:30pm - 1:15pmDay 1: R+B: adidas + University of Portland, Oregon, USA
 
 

What We Didn’t Know We Didn’t Know Industry-led Collaboration for Developing Design Curriculum: The adidas and University of Portland, Oregon, USA Experience

Ian Parkman1, Pete Stolpe2

1Associate Professor of Marketing, University of Portland; 2Senior Category Manager, adidas, USA

Traditionally the relationship between academic institutions and businesses has been seen as largely transactional—universities provide students with knowledge and skills that are valued by industry as new hires and in return business partners often deliver funding support for specific programs and institutions. In this session, we provide a discussion of our experiences creating a pioneering partnership between the University of Portland (UP) and adidas, who has their North American headquarters located less than two miles from the UP campus. This partnership involved an industry-led collaborative process that resulted in a new design curriculum for the UP business school, starting from a largely blank slate. While the university recognized prior to partnership the need to develop more design-related courses and programming the institution understood that it did not-- at that time-- possess the requisite background or expertise to confidently define the right learning objectives, course content, or key skills to embed in the curriculum. Accordingly, UP made the conscious decision to work their curriculum develop process backwards by engaging adidas as an industry-leading partner to help identity, define, and develop the hard and soft design-related skills valued in their marketplaces that would be mapped onto new classes and programs at the university. We will discuss our experiences in the process and provide some insight into our key strategies and tactics that may help other universities develop similar partnerships with industry in their campus contexts.

 
1:15pm - 1:30pmTrack 1 Session 3
 
 

Transforming Methods for Ethics and Equity in Professional Design Practice

Jessica Jacobs

Columbia College Chicago, USA

Many innovation-oriented design organizations are shifting their business models to be more ethical, inclusive, and equitable, yet there is uncertainty in how to engage with these imperatives within the constraints of professional design practice. This paper proposes weaving economic analysis and sociotechnical system framing with the emergent ethical practices of designers and design managers by conceiving of new strategies for equity-focused design methods. Along with the collective efforts for ethical calls to action toward social and environmental justice, these strategies have the potential to empower leaders to design equitable business solutions. It is necessary to two key obstacles—market-focused demands and neutral methodologies—to shift the processes and outcomes of design practice to be more equitable. The literature reviewed here builds on previous theories and methods to conceptualize the value of developing more equitable design processes. To support this conceptualization and inform the necessary shifts towards equity, contributions from designers and design researchers focusing on justice-oriented methods and sociotechnical systems analysis are reviewed. In conclusion, the author explores the use of problem framing and scenario-based design to add systemic sociotechnical contexts related to oppression and exclusion. These are two of several proposed innovations to methodology that seek to bridge the gap between participatory-oriented academic design research and market-oriented professional design practice.

 
1:30pm - 2:30pmTrack 1 Session 4
 
 

Bridging Gaps

Tod Corlett

Thomas Jefferson University, USA

Universities' attempts to generate value from what their students and faculty discover are plagued with problems, many of them stemming from siloing effects, the mutual isolation of academic disciplines, and the difficulty of keeping students involved in valuable ideas they've originated after the end of the course. These issues are often exacerbated by the conflicting goals, languages and incentives separating research, teaching, and product commercialization.

This paper will present an analysis of communication “gaps” in intensely collaborative innovation projects within a research/design university. The process begins with a structured "problem-finding" process within an academic health system, moving into an opportunity-framing phase including design and translational research students and faculty, and then transitioning into an entrepreneurial-incubator phase which involves commercial product-development consultants and the university's technology-transfer office, in addition to the student-faculty teams.

The author will trace the evolution and iteration of this innovation process over the past seven years, as problems were traced, described, and (eventually) overcome. The author will contrast an interview-based evaluation of past projects with current/ongoing case studies.



The role of Industrial Designers skills within entrepreneurial teams

Laura Elisabet Casasbuenas Quiroga

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Due to the skills, training and diversity background for each member of one team, Heterogeneous Entrepreneurs Teams are an ideal work structure to develop innovative solutions and face the obstacles that normally do not allow business growth.

The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of the designer’s skills within entrepreneurial teams with the purpose of evidence the value of design at the various stages of an entrepreneurial process and contribute to the internal dynamics of an entrepreneurial team.

This paper presents two conceptual models, the first one is a four-stage process and the links between the growth phases into a business idea. Divergent and convergent dynamics have been included, coming from the Design methodology and thinking, that the entrepreneurial team will able to incorporate to achieve growth objectives.

The second one, shows a comparison between the designer skills and entrepreneurial team skills. The results obtained in this project allow for a designer to be successfully included within an entrepreneurial team in every phase of the process entrepreneur, where the designer will play a strategic role for the benefit of the growth process. On the other hand, it allows to recognize the special and similar abilities of designers in a heterogeneous entrepreneurial team for the benefit of team dynamics.

In the third stage, the methods were divided, the first one was a literature review in relevant databases. The second one was two conceptual models developed to guide the research. And the third was the designer's participation within heterogeneous entrepreneurial teams in different stages of the new venture creation process.

The results obtained in this project will be a contribution to Design Management because it explores the relationship between Design and Entrepreneurship in the dynamics of entrepreneurial teams, which is an under the researched context. This research considers ventures as opportunities to introduce design in the early phases of an organization, enhancing creativity, innovation, and assessment of complementary skills in the members of the heterogeneous team to define the role of each member. As a result, the organization involves Design since its inception and will continue to keep the value in the following development stages.



Development of data-based personas for user-centered design of the connected home

Chaiwoo Lee, John Rudnik, Maryam FakhrHosseini, Sheng-Hung Lee, Joseph F. Coughlin

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

Technological advancements have brought the concept of the connected home closer to reality. However, early adopters experience difficulties in bringing fragmented technologies into their lifestyles and have yet to witness tangible benefits. This challenge represents a fundamental mismatch between the perspectives of innovators and actual users, and suggests the need for bridging the gap.

In this study, a set of personas, or fictional representations of archetypal users, were developed using empirical data from a large-scale survey. Demographic information, self-reported technology adoption characteristics and health characteristics were used to cluster respondents into five personas. Quantitative and qualitative survey data were used to describe living arrangements, routine tasks, experiences of the home and technology, and current worries and concerns. Analysis yielded a holistic view of user needs, suggesting the designers of the connected home to incorporate a comprehensive understanding of various interconnected needs and lived experiences. The persona descriptions illustrated similarities and differences between user groups, suggesting opportunities for improving experiences around technologies that constitute the connected home. Additionally, this study can serve as framework for designers in other fields, providing insight into approaches for collecting and analysing user data in design practices to facilitate better user-centered experiences.



Using a Codesign Workshop to Make an Impact with Codesign Research

Jennifer Watts-Englert1, Emily Yang2

1Paychex and Rochester Institute of Technology; 2Paychex, USA

Professional services companies are relaxing the tone of voice and personality they use to interact with clients. In response to these trends, we used codesign methods to explore how clients want to interact with our company. Study findings revealed several opportunities for creating stronger connections with our clients. To increase the impact of our research, we conducted a codesign workshop with stakeholders across the company to share insights and co-create opportunities in an interactive format. This workshop created buy-in for some controversial findings and led to the creation of a task force focused on integrating study findings into multiple marketing and design projects. This paper summarizes the study findings and describes the codesign methods used in the internal stakeholder workshop. We will also describe workshop outcomes and discuss the benefits of using codesign to share study findings.

 
2:30pm - 2:45pmDay 1: Afternoon Q&A #1
 
2:45pm - 3:40pmTrack 1 Session 5
 
 

A Systematic Thinking Design Research Approach Combining the ConOps with Design Scenario – Use Commercial Cislunar Space Development Project as an Example

Sheng-Hung Lee1,2, John Rudnik2, Chaiwoo Lee2, Shabnam Fakhr Hosseini2, Olivier L. de Weck3, Joseph F. Coughlin2, Jonathan Chapman4

1MIT Integrated Design & Management (IDM); 2MIT AgeLab; 3MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems; 4Carnegie Mellon University School of Design, USA

The design scenario approach has been widely used in the field of design research, design thinking, and creative industries. However, little research has been done to explore the possibility of combining the methodology of ConOps (Concept of Operations) from the field of system engineering with the design scenario approach. Fundamentally, ConOps is an approach to visualize the key touchpoints of the overall process. The design scenario is used as a way to facilitate constructive conversations with participants, and the outcome supports new design research methodology development. This research fuses advanced techniques from design research methodology with a systematic thinking approach in order to better illustrate and capture key moments that constitute the specific task of making a Moon rover and establishing a solar panel system in micro and macro contexts. In particular, the study applied ConOps methodologies to the commercial cislunar space development project and demonstrated the possible learning and reflection by integrating its structure and concepts into design scenario tools. This study is valuable in two aspects: firstly, it can improve the existing design research methodology by fusing the ConOps with the design scenario; secondly, it was a scalable and replicable creative process that experimented with the innovative methodology. Further studies are recommended to focus on combining the systematic thinking approaches, frameworks, and theories with design thinking methodology to tackle systematic innovative challenges to make an invaluable impact.



From Self-Advocacy to Public History: Building Collaborative Capacity among Remote Communities

Neha Mann, Brooke Brandewie

University of Cincinnati, USA

Every community contributes to shaping society and hence merits a place in public history. Some communities are often excluded from knowledge- production due to the trivialization of their contributions or their marginalization. Such communities need to advocate for themselves and publish their own narrative.

This project used a variety of research methods to propose design interventions intended to connect and amplify the voices of Indian Women leading political activism around the world. It is rooted in the opportunity of preserving pivotal social movements in the form of public history. The focus was to facilitate the transformation of individual voices into collective action.

As a result, a new process framework was developed that can be adapted by similar remote and underrepresented communities. It details how remotely located participants can collect and manage a unique qualitative data set of their shared experiences. The framework is extensible to other communities that represent a significant voice, but feel under-capacitated to advocate for themselves.

A design proposal visualizes the process of Self-Advocacy – collection to interpretation – through the navigation of a digital tool that embodies the framework and facilitates a community through the participatory design process. There is an opportunity for empowering communities to participate in building their public history. The paper discusses how the author designed, refined and defined the process for a community to advocate for oneself.



Mediating Piatt Park: Addressing Crime Prone Public Spaces through Design Research

Sebastian Ramirez, Neha Mann, Claudia Rebola

University of Cincinnati, USA

Piatt Park is the first park in Cincinnati and hence a heritage destination. Recently the park has become a hotspot for notorious problems including loitering, drug usage, homelessness etc. which affects the quality of living of residents and visitors of downtown Cincinnati. Different organizations have addressed the situation but the majority of proposals recommend substantial shifts in environmental design, requiring high-investment infrastructural modifications. As part of the Graduate program at [redacted], the Urban Mediated Environments course partnered with the Cincinnati Police Department and exercised design research to lead innovations, conceptualizing low-tech interventions to mediate the behavioral dynamics of Piatt Park.

A group of 7 students, as part of the Urban Mediated Environments course at University of Cincinnati, developed an intervention system to dissolve the issues without uninviting anyone from using the park. A Hybrid design research methodology helped empathize with the park users and gave a deeper understanding of the enablers of bad behaviors. The response to the challenges was refined through multiple rounds of prototyping and agile iterations, until the final concepts were adopted by the city. Some of these interventions are being implemented in downtown Cincinnati and have set a precedent in mediating urban environments.



Using Project Inflection Points to Teach Design Thinking

Sarah Zuberec1, Jennifer Watts-Englert2

1University of Washington; 2Rochester Institute of Technology and Paychex, USA

Design thinking is commonly taught by having students apply a variety of tools and methods to an iterative, multi-stage design thinking process. While this formulaic approach can be helpful to introduce design thinking concepts, we believe it is not enough to teach students how to effectively apply design thinking to inherently messy real-world situations. Our classes emphasize how a design thinking approach can address inflection points that arise within complex, collaborative projects. Inflection points are critical junctures where projects can go awry. They offer important opportunities to focus on the needs of people who will benefit from the project. Examples of inflection points are: integrating diverse perspectives, problem definition, gaining stakeholder buy-in and defining and prioritizing requirements. We believe an emphasis on inflection points better equips students to apply design thinking in the real-world situations they will face. This paper will describe how we orient class discussions, hands-on group activities, and team assignments around project inflection points to anchor our teaching of design thinking. We will explain how we developed these teaching tools and summarize student feedback on the effectiveness of this teaching approach.

 
3:40pm - 3:55pmDay 1: Afternoon Q&A #2
 
3:55pm - 4:05pmDay 1 Closing
 
Date: Tuesday, 04/Aug/2020
9:00am - 9:15amDay 2 Welcome: Carole Bilson, President, Design Management Institute
 
9:15am - 10:00amTuesday Keynote
 
 

The Changing Face of Design Education

Angela Bains

Assistant Professor, OCAD University / Strategic Director, TransformExp.com, Canada

Design and strategy education is in need of massive scrutiny when it comes to not only diversity and inclusion but accessibility for ALL. Sharing a different lived experience in relation to education and business obstacles, my role at OCAD University is to bring a different lens to create greater awareness for change. Experiencing life differently, being left out of the picture and not allowed a seat at the table. What visions, thoughts, approaches are we as educators, corporations, and businesses not seeing? How does this get translated into the workforce? If the goal is greater innovation and successful diverse teams then we need to move from diversity intent to understanding and ACTION!

Angela is originally from the UK and is an educator, co-founder, and strategic director of TransformExp an award-winning design firm in Canada. As an educator, Angela has been nominated for seven local and national teaching awards of excellence. Her client list includes BBC Television, Swatch Canada, The Ritz-Carlton, and Continental Engineering Corporation (Hong Kong & Taiwan). She also spent many years designing for social change, including the Free Nelson Mandela Campaign.

 
10:00am - 11:00amTrack 3 Session 1
 
 

Empathetic proximity: A comparison of LEGO serious play, Scene-it (SAP) and design ethnography in gathering rich user-centred data in low resource conditions

Jo'Anne Langham1, Neil Paulsen1, Chrystia Chudczak2

1University of Queensland, Australia; 2University of Ottawa, Canada

Most design research takes place under considerable time and resource constraints. Therefore, design researchers are inventive. They compromise by balancing a range of considerations including access to representative samples, data sensitivity and personal safety, with differing approaches to understanding people to gather the richest data in the quickest manner. The optimal technique is not always practical or possible due to a range of real-world factors. To explore design methods and related pedagogy, we used action research to investigate the effectiveness of three design research activities: Lego Serious Play (LSP), Scene-it and field studies, in low resource conditions. The research was conducted in Pakistan as part of a design project to enhance female home-based worker’s (FHBW) financial independence with digital tools. We also explored the use of westernised design methods in non-traditional contexts.

Results showed both Scene-it and LSP had unique advantages as design activities, confirming their role as core exploratory and ideation techniques. However, field studies (design ethnography) had the greatest personal impact on the researchers and the design trainees, providing insights about the design requirements that did not emerge with the other tools. Field studies enabled the researchers and trainees to develop higher levels of empathy with the FHBW. The action research methods challenged the research team to ensure rigourous contextualisation of design techniques. We provide a list of principles for conducting co-design or design research in culturally foreign contexts.



Research on the Future Strategies and Visions of Design Education, Focusing on Comparison Between Britain, the Nordic countries, Germany, the U.S.A. and Australia

Hyeon Jin An1, Bo Ram Park2

1Hongik University, IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Hongik University, IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

As an economic paradigm of the current society has been changing, design has grown more and more influential. In the midst of this fluctuation, it becomes necessary to contemplate on the roles and tasks of design in regards to the future education.

This study aims to investigate directions of desirable design education in order to nurture talented individuals for the future. Based on the surveys of the current design education conditions in the five countries, Britain, the Nordic countries, Germany, the U.S.A., and Australia, where design has become a part of their regular curricula, this research proposes strategies for the future design education.

According to the examination, those five countries have been educating design in a form of cooperation-driven activities, multidisciplinary programs combined with academic subjects, and elementary humanities with design by aiming at fostering creative thinking and problem-solving skills, in-depth understanding on socio-culture, responsibilities and ethics. Consequently, it requires an essential approach for the future design education beyond perceiving ‘Design’ simply as a measure for education. Furthermore, it implies that the future design education must provide students with a fundamental curriculum, Liberal Design Education.



A Study on the Educational Effectiveness of Design Thinking for Enhancing Creative Competency, Convergence Competency and Entrepreneurship of University Students in South Korea

Eugene Lim1, Seyoung Kim2, Bokyung Kim3, Hyunjin Lim4

1Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Sogang University; 3Seoul Women's College of Nursing; 4Korea Productivity Center

The purpose of this study is to verify the effectiveness of a design thinking-based project program as a non-credit program conducted for a semester at a university in South Korea to improve the creativity competency, convergence competency, and entrepreneurship of learners. In order to achieve the research objective, 34 students from A University in Korea formed multidisciplinary teams and conducted a design-thinking-based team project over a total of 15 weeks. They produced final products according to design thinking stages (empathize-define-ideate-prototype-test). To verify the effectiveness of the program, creative competency, convergence competency, and entrepreneurship were estimated at the beginning of the design thinking project and the end of the design thinking project. A matched pair t-test was conducted to the pre-post analysis. As a result of the study, both the creative competency, the convergence competency and entrepreneurship showed statistically significant improvement at the end of the program, and among sub-factors of entrepreneurship, there was a significant improvement in emotional empathy and idea creation. This study has significance in that it empirically identifies the educational value and potential of the program and proposes a design thinking non-credit program that can be applied flexibly in the field of university.



Designing Healthy Promotional Solutions for the Elderly in Taiwan

YIPEI WU

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan

Faced with the obvious changes in the demographic structure, governments in all countries are actively developing long-term social welfare policies in response to the impact of the ageing population. Aging issues in Taiwan is becoming serious, as Taiwan already entered into an aging society in 2018 and become one of the fast aging country in the world. In this research, following the first phase research for identifying three senior participants’ group namely as “Active Health,” “Confident Health” and “Carefree Health” with different lifestyles, through 5-week experiment workshop with semi-structured questionnaire, focus group, journal and interactive reminding platform, this research explored how much sustained health promotion solutions improved the elderly subjects’ physical fitness, and simultaneously compared the discrepancies among the three groups (A, B, and C).

This research found that all three group’s fitness all improved, and their mood level all showed continuous positive improved after 5- week experiment. Furthermore, all three groups tend to adopt face-to-face courses rather than on-line courses. And especially for Group B and C, interpersonal interaction is the key motivation factor for motivating them to exercise. “Checking” and “Reminding” mechanism through on line interactive platform would be the key factor to solve the shared problem of “lack of perseverance.” Based on our findings from experiment on three health promotion programs, we will continue to make the next stage research on scale testing to validate the acceptance, sustainability and triggers for better understanding the health promotion behaviors for elderly in Taiwan.

 
11:00am - 11:35amTrack 3 Session 2
 
 

Innovation by Design for Smart Cities

Christof Breidenich, Fabian Coenradie, Britta Lelgemann

Macromedia University of Applied Sciences, Germany

The interest and reflection in this paper will be focused on the interaction of attractive retail and attractive inner cities. Local retail and its challenges from increased online consumption as well as other situations confronting downtown areas in the digital transformation age will be examined using the example of the German small town of Bocholt. Methods and processes from the creative practice of strategic design are used to ask questions about the problem catalysts and social dimensions. As a result, designers no longer produce exclusively finished products or services, but rather that more or less intensive social ties are increasingly designed to integrate heterogeneous participant fields as infrastructures. This requires knowledge of both creative user-related qualities as designers in a digitally transformed world and the challenges of managing urban organizations and retailing. Derived from the mechanisms of digital transformation and based on the data from a study by the Institute of Trade Research, design strategies and methods are defined as the basis for a student project.



Shaping the Hospital of the Future. Improve the user experience in the Public Healthcare Sector through Service Design Education.

Angela Giambattista1, Loredana Di Lucchio1, Mariia Zolotova2

1Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University

The Public Healthcare Sector is experiencing a profound crisis due to socio-dynamic changes (Parameswaran&Raijmakers, 2010) difficult to manage, such as demographic aging and population growth. Furthermore, if we consider the new alternative approaches in disease management and the growing participation of patients in healthcare decision making (Vahdat et al., 2014), deep considerations and paradigmatic shifts in the way healthcare professionals design, produce and use the medical products are needed. The growing interest in the potential of Design approaches, from which to draw consolidated models of thought and creative and divergent practices (Chamberlain, 2015) to respond to fundamental challenges for the health of our society, has recently expanded from the dimension of products and services. This represents an unmissable opportunity for the Design Discipline to switch from a Product-Centered model to a Human-Centered model where the user is placed in the center of the process and the product expands into product/service with a systemic perspective.

The introduction of Service Design in medical settings requires a multilevel approach that analyzes the complexity of the system, in which the nature of the problems intersects with economic and social dynamics too. From this point of view, the methodologies of Service Design offer conceptual models that help to focus the design action on the User Experience, considering all the characteristics of the service in a structured way and openly thinking about the individual components without losing the holistic view. According to this new perspective and given the growing relevance of services in the contemporary economy, in the corporate strategies and in the public sector, the academic approach to Service Design and the Service Design Education in the context of Healthcare need to be revised through a better definition of design competencies (Morelli&Götzen, 2017).

In the light of these considerations, this paper describes the didactic experience held within an International Master of Science in Product Design at Sapienza University of Rome, where the students have experimented the methods of the Service Design (Stickdorn et al., 2011) to respond to the problem of designing the User Experience (Norman, 2004) in a Public Healthcare Context. The aim was to transfer to the students the skills useful for achieving a Service and Social Innovation (Manzini, 2015) in the field of Public Healthcare through the development of a Design Proposal of a product/service that would provide a new User Experience for the Pediatric Emergency Room of the local public Hospital 'Policlinico Umberto I’ by taking into consideration its social, economic and technological long-term sustainability. In order to reach that goal, the didactic activities were organized as a three-step process (Research, Design, Develop) each with their own tools that have supported students in learning, thinking, analyzing, understanding, and evaluating all the stages of the design process.

The course finalized at a set of Design Proposals demonstrating the potential of Design Discipline to bring improvements to the Public Healthcare Services Sector thanks to its creative and divergent thinking and to the development of effective Users Experiences.



Service design Thinking and Organisational Change in the Public Sector

Renate Aakerhielm

Sodertorn University, Sweden

This paper aims at creating an understanding of the transformation of organizational thought in service organizations active in the public sector. The need to re-think organizational thought emerges as a consequence of innovation in design thought, i.e. service design thinking (SDT). The question is: How does SDT transform organizational thought? The present paper examines organizations in the public service sector. The conducted study suggests SDT is a self-propelled management tool for organizational unlearning toward a management style, that creates space and makes foot soldiers and managers on different layers dare to take up their own space.

 
11:35am - 12:00pmDay 2: Morning Q&A
 
12:00pm - 12:30pmDay 2: Break
 
12:30pm - 1:15pmDay 2: R+B: Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania + University of Pennsylvania
 
 

Patient Safety Learning Lab (PSLL)

Daria Ferro. MD.1, Julia Lin2

1Pediatrician and Clinical Informatician at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP); 2Healthcare Designer, IPD, University of Pennsylvania, USA

Systems used to continuously monitor children’s heart rate, breathing rate, and oxygen levels in hospital and home settings generate alarms intended to warn caregivers— nurses in the hospital and parents at home— of conditions that warrant their immediate attention. However, both systems suffer from high rates of false alarms, which cause unnecessary sleep disruption, task interruptions, and alarm fatigue that “teaches” caregivers to ignore or respond slowly to future alarms. Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, embarked on a multiphase Patient Safety Learning Lab (PSLL) project to re-engineer these systems.

The goal of this collaboration was to integrate design research and strategy into the clinical projects to identify novel ways of approaching and solving problems in clinical care.

 
1:15pm - 1:30pmTrack 3 Session 3
 
 

The role of creative facilitation in the ‘wicked problem’: the aging society

Hilary Jane Collins

The Open University, UK

This paper discusses a series of creative workshops designed to provide insight into one of our major health and social care challenges of the 21st century – the complexities of an ageing society. Public and third sector organisations are faced with multiple challenges linked to ageing at a population level, trying to manage and resolve complex problems, meeting individual needs in the context of diminishing public sector resources. We need to develop an enriched suite of solutions to enable people to live healthy and fulfilling lives. Additionally, within an increasingly uncertain third sector we need to develop a rich and diverse skill set amongst employees and importantly stakeholders, to enable them to engage with the challenges, and to create positive opportunities, and outcomes for older people. The challenges in this area are well documented, but the solutions less so. Our creative facilitation project, in partnership with a key charity, aims to offer some new thinking in how we can adopt a different, and more creative approach to explore knotty problems. We discuss how this project had to be adapted due to the Covid 19 pandemic and evaluate to what extent; our adapted approach will offer additional armoury to organisations through the development of a practical online creative toolkit that third sector organisations can use to co-create solutions with users.

 
1:30pm - 2:10pmTrack 3 Session 4
 
 

Product- Service Systems applied to reusable packaging systems: a strategic design tool

Yuan Long, Fabrizio Ceschin, Mansour Noha, David Harrison

Brunel University London, UK

Environmental sustainability is under the threat of the excessive single-use plastic packaging waste which current waste management fails to address. Therefore, the issue has led to a identification of the solution which can curb the packaging waste without sacrificing the social needs.

Reusable packaging solution (RPS) represents a circular approach to close the loop of consumption in which packaging can stay longer in the system to satisfy social needs. However, the implementation of reusable packaging is limited. Product-Service System (PSS) is widely regarded as a sustainable business model innovation for embracing circular consumption. As a result, applying PSS to RPSs will be promising to address the packaging waste issue. However, there is limited knowledge regarding adopting this approach to address this issue. This paper aims to understand how to apply PSS to RPS for supporting professionals to address the packaging crisis for food and household products industry.

The methodology of this paper is a combination of case studies and experts' interview. 57 cases studies are collected, analyzed and formulated into 15 archetypal models that represent all types of RPSs in the current market. In parallel, a classification is developed to embrace those 15 archetypal models and a total number of 24 experts, who are packaging consultants, NGO professionals who address plastic waste and reusable packaging entrepreneurs, were invited for the evaluation of the design tool.

This research provides a strategic design tool to support packaging professionals to design RPSs. The application of the tool is to support the understanding of the RPSs, analyzing the markets, identifying new opportunities and generate RPSs. The implication of this research is to provide insights for academics and businesses in terms of tackling single-use packaging waste and build a foundation for further development of the reusable packaging solution tool.



Co-designing the Knowledge Management Model

Pia Tamminen1, Marina Weck1, Fernando A.F. Ferreira2,3

1HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Finland; 2University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal; 3Fogelman College of Business and Economics, University of Memphis, USA

This work-in-progress study reviews co-designing processes through the lens of possibility-driven design (PDD). A knowledge management model (KMM) is co-designed by facilitating the development work of senior and regional innovation actors who share ideas, experience and information in the development of smart products and services for an age-friendly smart living environment.

The empirical part is divided into three stages: an orientation workshop, two panel meetings and three co-design and validation workshops where an appropriate knowledge management model is co-designed through iteration rounds. The first stage maps the regional innovation actors, relevant organisations in the region and data flows between all the parties. Ideas of suitable ways to manage knowledge are gathered from the panel meetings of the second stage and are methodologically supported by the strategic options development and analysis (SODA) approach. At the time of writing this paper, the third stage consisting of three workshops with appropriate iteration rounds is on-going.

The findings of the study provide insights regarding the use of PDD activities with an inclusion of the SODA approach when facilitating the co-design of a KMM with a multi-professional group of experts. The study contributes to the theory of PDD by integrating systematic methodological aspects to it when working on complex problems.



Innovation by doing: Reconstructing current industrial design education through a collaboration of global industry partners

Anna Kabjin Kim

Carleton University, Canada

The term, innovation, has been coined in various disciplines to describe new ways of developing ideas. Depending on its referenced contexts, innovation brings many values to intended projects especially in relation to business markets to improve products or services. According to IDEO, in the field of industrial design, ‘new knowledge’ or innovation is communicated through diverse sources from physical to digital tools. It is understood that opportunities and complexities are discovered during this creative process. How can industrial design education respond to these ongoing challenges in social and economic context?

Presently, the notion of innovation is mostly associated with newly developed engineering processes or business-oriented solutions for economic development. Yet, research in promoting industrial design education through innovation and diverse industry collaborators has not been assessed much in current studies. This paper explores the notion of innovation as a creative strategy to bridge the ongoing challenges experienced within industrial design education, at a global perspective. Through a review of literature and case studies, extant research in industrial design practice suggests leveraging opportunities for future collaboration with diverse industry experts.

In order for innovation to spark and to be applied successfully in the academic field of industrial design, barriers or hindering factors need to be carefully evaluated by comparing and contrasting examples from global perspectives such as Indonesia, South Korea, and Japan. Furthermore, relevant qualitative and quantitative data from a corporate perspective will be discussed in this paper to generate future research inquiry which can drive future design thinking for many designers and educators.

 
2:10pm - 2:30pmDay 2: Afternoon Q&A #1
 
2:30pm - 3:40pmTrack 3 Session 5
 
 

Apply Humanity-centered Design Process to Envision the Future Learning Experience of Public Area – Use “Redesign Shanghai Library Innovation Space Project” as an Example

Sheng-Hung Lee1,2, John Rudnik2, Lin Lin3, Liangtie Tang3, Deming Zhou3

1MIT Integrated Design & Management (IDM); 2MIT AgeLab; 3Shanghai Library

This study attempts to redefine the traditional human-centered design thinking method, and coins the term—“humanity-centered” design approach, which consists of an inclusive framework, co-creation methods and a comprehensive way of viewing the creative research process. In short, the purpose of the approach is to design with care. The whole research and design process took minority groups including the elderly, the children, the disabled as well as the target/majority users into key considerations and designed relevant layers of their engagement accordingly. This study utilizes the example of envisioning the future learning experience of public area - redesign Shanghai Library Innovation Space as a real go-to market project based on humanity-centered design approach that covers every aspect of the Shanghai Library Innovation Space (the Space), from the individual, product, organization, and space to the service and experience it offers. The purpose of the redesign lies in making knowledge accessible and flow freely so that users can experience in the Space what extends beyond the library. A more enriching learning experience for readers/users, in turn, helps to highlight the role of the librarian, and leads to a more enriching experience for users. The Space has always been the benchmark in the exploration of innovation space for Chinese libraries. Yet in the face of market change, consumer trade-up, industrial transformation, and technological advances, it has to reposition itself in order to maintain its leading role in the practice of library innovation by delivering better experience for both its users and librarians through culture rebuilding, while in the meantime following the Shanghai Library's mission of "providing excellent knowledge services". A survey of users and librarians highlights the need to establish a more distinctly defined value proposition, to deal with the incompatibility and interaction between different areas or sections, to improve the design to meet the actual needs of users/librarians, to enhance services offered by librarians and to interact with users in more varied forms. A humanity-centered approach has enhanced design elements in space so much so that knowledge, education and innovation opportunities can be found everywhere and come in the context of dialogues rather than just existing in the physical environment. The knowledge-based services provided by the Space feature diverse and customized innovation education courses suited to users’ needs in the forms of lecture, speech, and workshop, in order to better connect with the users. The Space has also nurtured an innovation-oriented culture and knowledge-based community with a more positive influence on society.



Touch and Go: Fast Interprofessional Collaboration Relief

Steven John Doehler, Jeanine Goodin

University of Cincinnati, USA

Working collaboratively through interprofessional education is highly effective when solving problems in community health. Unlike industry, academic collaborations are limited to class time and are often sporadic. This fragmentation often times translates into teams not finding stride until mid-semester.

To address this lag, the Design + Nursing Collaboration (D+NC), developed the Touch and Go Collaboration method. This method focuses on bring students together early to unite under tasks that are easily completed via in person and distance collaboration. This method strategically brings designers and nurses together then breaks them apart at appropriate moments to enable them to focus and excel in their area of specialty. The collaboration method enables students to come together and solve wicked problems as a large team. A diverse mindset is needed for this. One that can address 30 thousand-foot challenges from various perspectives. However, as the problems get closer to the ground, disciplinary experts need to shine without compromise and break away and perform the tasks in their field of expertise. This is the Touch and Go Collaboration Method developed by the D+NC.

The authors will outline and demonstrate the process, outcomes, and how Touch and Go moved the solution farther faster.



Design management for wicked problems: Towards systemic theories of change through systemic design

Ryan J. A. Murphy1, Peter Jones2

1Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada; 2OCAD University, Canada

Design and design management is increasingly called upon to respond to the world’s complex, dynamic problems. Yet, no standard methodology exists to help designers understand, model, and design solutions for these wicked problems. Program theory uses theory of change models to develop linear pathways of outcomes to show how a change initiative will have its desired effects. However, critics of these models accuse them of being reductively linear. Systems thinkers use causal loop diagrams to create maps of systems that show their behaviour in their full, dynamic complexity. However, these diagrams are sometimes overwhelming and impractical. In this paper, we combine these tools with a novel technique from systemic design called “leverage analysis” to help identify crucial features of a complex problem and help designers develop practical theories of systemic change.



Preventing discrimination and hate | A design-led approach to youth development

Hina Shahid, Robert Fee

Project Pluralist, USA

This paper explores the use of design skills—abstract thinking, perspective taking, collaboration, solution mindset combined with the Design Studio approach as a means to prevent discrimination and hate among youth, and to cultivate Pluralist values. It further discusses the design and development of the Pluralist Workshops as a means to spark conversations and solutions on discrimination and hate and to teach Pluralist competencies.

Discrimination has long been a problem in schools in the form of bullying—approximately 30 percent of young people admit to bullying others in surveys, and 70.6 percent of young people say they have seen bullying in their schools (NCES, 2007). With new mediums in use 15 percent of students ages 12-18 have experienced cyberbullying (CDC, 2017). This problem of discrimination has been compounded by the high number of juveniles committing hate crimes (Comstock, 2020). In a survey of over 10,000 K-12 educators, 90 percent said that school climate has been negatively affected since the 2016 election cycle, and 80 percent expressed increased anxiety on the part of minority students— students of color, Muslims, immigrants, LGBTQ (SPLC, 2017). FBI’s hate crimes data from 2017 shows that schools and colleges are the third-most common location for hate crimes (Modan, 2019). Despite the evidence 40 percent of school administrators reported not having an action plan to respond to incidents of bias or hate (SPLC, 2017). This problem requires creative and preventive measures, which this paper proposes in the form of Pluralist Workshops—utilizing design skills and design studio approach of learning as a solution.

Design education in general, and Design Studios structure in specific is PBL (Project-based learning) where students learn by doing, asking questions, reflecting on ideas and interacting with each other. Additionally, the Experiential nature of Design Studios allows students to learn by experiencing a new phenomenon, reflecting upon it, conceptualizing the experienced into new knowledge and then applying it to further their knowledge (Kolb, 1984). Thus, making Design Studio the right approach for teaching skills that require critical thinking (Riess & Neporent, 2018) and behavior change. The paper outlines the design and development of Pluralist Workshops by using the Design Innovation Process Model (Kumar, 2003) of research, analysis, synthesis, and prototyping; 1) the need for pluralist competencies, 2) Identification and definition of Pluralist competencies, 3) the design and development of the learning modules (workshops), 4) impact and measurement of the workshops.

This paper explores the application of design skills and Design Studio (PBL) approach to building Pluralist competencies of fairness and inclusion, intercultural literacy, interpersonal communication and collaboration, solution mindset, resilience and efficacy in middle and high school students. The Pluralist workshop was tested with more than 50 students, a majority of which showed a relative increase in empathy, perspective taking (IRI; Davis, 1980), efficacy and resilience (GSE; Schwarzer & Jerusalem,1995). The Pluralist Workshop proved in engaging students to think critically and opened up the conversation of furthering the workshop towards a long-term engagement and a host of curricula options.



Sustainable Design Thinking

Shruti Parikh

Noukraft, United States of America

Abstract

Elements Of Sustainable Design

A healthy planet is important for the health and well-being of all people. It directly supports the lives and livelihoods of 70 per cent of the Earth’s population.

Sustainable products, services, and behaviors are the future. They are better for business, consumers and the planet, and increasingly consumers are asking for them. — 93 percent of global consumers want to see more of the brands they use support worthy social and/or environmental issues, and three out of four teenagers say they want to buy more sustainable products!

Yet Selling sustainability to the customer is difficult!

Selling Sustainability To The Customer – what is in it for me?

1. Heroing value

2. Build awareness and sensitize through campaigns

3. Remove the barriers and highlight benefits

4. Offer consumers more value from sustainability

5. Build functional, emotional and social benefits

6. Educate through apps/websites on waste segregation- research shows people are not fully aware of what should be thrown in recyclable bins.

7. Create a city council- by the people, for the people

(Research paper will elaborate on methods, discussions and tangible solutions through research and ideation)

Sustainable Design Thinking For Marketeer

When we choose to make things, we design a product for delightful human-centered experience. Design is one of the phases during which we can be smarter about upstream, mainstream & downstream of a product cycle and the functional, emotional and social benefits we can provide to the marketeer and the end-user towards creating a sustainable economy.

Design for upstream:

1. Optimize Material selection - Renewable materials, repurposed materials and scraps otherwise headed for the waste bin are all capable of contributing to a more sustainable plastic.

2. Homogenize: Design for integration of components, reducing assembly time, raw materials from a single source, simplify details, etc

3. Buy-in from stakeholders- design for no rejection, efficient transportation etc

Design for mainstream:

1. Optimize product usage through good design, efficient use of energy while usage

2. Smart-i-fy products – Knowing is solving. Customer gets an update of the resources consumed. Likewise, they can optimize the consumption of the resources. Moen the sanitary fitting brand provides a smart water flow device connected through mobile. End-user gets updates of water consumption, leakage etc.

3. Brand connect through technology: brand can frequently provide case examples for efficient use, maintenance tips, champion user and many more, through apps or other mediums. The brands will earn loyal customers and brand ambassadors.

4. Self-service – create first -aid product service. Identify issues through service complaints, design for self-service by the end-user. Eg: Identify top 5 reasons of failure for refrigerator cooling. Design the product for self-service – User gets notification, diagnose, solution of poor performance on app.

Design for downstream:

1. Establish Renting | Recommerce | Repair model. Collaborate with service providers to offer product repair at reduced cost.

2. Establish an Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system for a better collection of used goods. Collaborate with recycling/collection companies

3. Recycle the material for original use

4. Upcycle for secondary use

(Research paper will elaborate through case studies and ideation)

Conclusion:

Define key elements of design for sustainability. A checklist for every product designer to refer to achieving smart sustainable solutions and help to marketeer in setting up sustainability defining strategies for business.

 
3:40pm - 3:55pmDay 2: Afternoon Q&A #2
 
3:55pm - 4:05pmDay 2 Closing
 
Date: Wednesday, 05/Aug/2020
9:00am - 9:15amDay 3 Welcome: Carole Bilson, President, Design Management Institute
 
9:15am - 10:00amWednesday Keynote
 
 

UX MAGIC, The Power of Semantic Interaction Design

Daniel Rosenberg

Author, CDO, Educator - San Jose State Univ., USA

UX quality will make or break the success of any digital product or service. In the past the UX design discipline relied heavily on guesswork, intuition and endless rounds of A/B trial and error testing. Semantic IxD introduces a proven, powerful and cognitive science-based approach for generative digital design work that improves both the quality of initial designs as well as the speed at which they can be delivered by a factor of 10X. This innovative new approach addresses the weakest link in the user centered design lifecycle, the point where features and user requirements metamorphize into sketches, flows and other tangible design artifacts. UX MAGIC is a new book by this keynote speaker where he will introduce the Semantic IxD method to the DMI community.

Daniel is a prominent UX designer, author and educator who invented many of the GUI design patterns used today. In 2019 he received the prestigious ACM SigCHI Lifetime Practice award for his numerous technical and leadership contributions to the field.

 
10:00am - 11:00amTrack 3 Session 6
 
 

Unlocking the democratic potential of design capabilities in public management

Federico Rita, Ingrid Mulder, Alicia Calderón González

Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Public management needs to keep pace with contemporary problems and harvest capabilities to meet future scenarios. Consequently, practitioners in the public field must advocate for critical discussions and engage with people who are going to benefit from their guidance. The purpose of the current research is to investigate strategies to strengthen public management by exploring the potential of Design Thinking as a policy competency. A participatory design approach has been selected to co-create a learning environment for building design capabilities. In other words, a safe space that allows for sharing and nurturing knowledge, skills and attitudes. The setup of the participatory process entails a thorough exploration, in which a team of seven public managers of a regional association of municipalities participated. In four participatory sessions, a learning space has been iteratively prototyped, and finally evaluated in the context. Advantages and challenges to the selected approach are discussed to provide guidelines for a practical application and replication of the process within the target domain. It can be concluded that design interventions developed with the current integrated design approach have demonstrated viable opportunities for capacity-building in public management.



An Inclusive Approach to Sportswear (Athletic Wear) for People with Upper Limb Impairments

Jennifer Poage, Veronika Kapsali, Aurore Bardey

University of the Arts London, UK

Recently, inclusive fashion has seen an uptake by a handful of brands, but the disabled community is still largely underrepresented and underserved by the market. While Nike and Under Armour both have limited inclusive offerings, mainstream sportswear is predominantly designed for non-disabled consumers. This paper presents PhD research from the London College of Fashion, which looks at an inclusive approach to sportswear design for people with upper limb impairments. The Social Model of disability, in which disability is seen as socially created through imposed barriers, is applied to look at removing barriers through design. A literature review reveals that an overall design approach to inclusive sportswear for consumers with upper limb impairment is lacking. Under a pragmatic, participatory design methodology, stakeholders are considered collaborators for this project, and their input guides the direction of the research design and final output. People active in fitness who have upper limb impairment, sportswear designers, and other industry/research experts were interviewed about sportswear design needs. Engagement with other community members, such as disability sports coaches, allowed for further insider feedback. Finally, an 'Inclusive Sportswear Spectrum' for design strategy is proposed.



Chukku-Mukku: A tangible interactive setup for improving learning experience of Primary Schools’ children in Rural India

Krishna Kant GUPTA, Shubhangi AGARWAL, Elissa DAS, Anmol SRIVASTVA, Rakesh Sah

University of Petroleum and Energy studies, India

This study presents a work-in-progress towards explaining towards exploring possible solutions to overcome educational challenges faced by primary rural schools of india using research through design approach which is in itself an iterative process. A field survey was conducted using stratified random sampling covering N=11 schools on the outskirts and in remote areas of Dehradun, Uttarakhand. Data was collected in the form of observation and semi-structured interviews with N=8 school teachers and N=2 NGO’s to get better understanding of the teaching process and classroom dynamics. Contextual inquiries were carried out among a total of N=30 students considered as slow learners out of total number of students from these school. Insight reveal that as children are inherently curious and imaginative, a fun oriented learning and interactive medium of teaching is a necessary for better leaning experience. Hence, a novel tangible interactive learning setup (TLS) named Chukku-Mukku has been proposed. The Chukku-Mukku emphasises on channelling the curiosity of children towards the desired subject that enhance their interest. The proposed prototype consists of interactive tokens in the form of card came that enables collaborative and fun learning.



Apply and Curate the Object-Process Methodology (OPM) and the Human-centered Design to Solve the Systemic Challenge – Use Campus Tour Experience Design as an Example

Sheng-Hung Lee1,2, Chaiwoo Lee2, John Rudnik2, Olivier L. de Weck3, Joseph F. Coughlin2, Jonathan Chapman4

1MIT Integrated Design & Management (IDM); 2MIT AgeLab; 3MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems; 4Carnegie Mellon University School of Design, USA

The purpose of the study is to solve the systemic challenge on campus—“How might we create an informative yet delightful campus tour experience for students, visitors and university in the lens of service design?” by applying Object-Process Methodology (OPM) in the field of the system engineering and human-centered design. This study contributes to design research through the seamless combination and comparison of select methodologies from the system engineering and design thinking fields to solving the challenges faced by university campuses. In particular, the study utilized OPM to decompose the whole campus tour system into four main components: object, process, link and status, which helps analyze the system in the lens of inside-out perspective. The results showed that using OPM inspired the individuals to revisit and to clarify the internal organization structure and its relationships in the context of the service provider – the university. Within the sub-systems, the study utilized a human-centered design: target group interviews, journey mapping, concept prototyping, scenario experiment and service design refinement to identify the core cause and recommend five key touchpoints and its design suggestions across the campus tour journey. In a way, applying a human-centered design is to view the challenge in the lens of the outside-in perspective, which underlines the user needs in the context of service receiver – visitors, students, and investors. The example not only successfully redesigns and improves the existing campus tour experience from both the service receiver and the service provider, but also perfectly curate OPM with the human-centered design to scale the impact of the project.

 
11:00am - 11:45amTrack 4 Session 1
 
 

Transforming Organizational Services through Service Design

Sylvan Lobo, Bhaskarjyoti Das, Ravi Mahamuni

Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, India

Service design is being widely adopted by organizations to cultivate a design-led innovation culture and facilitate the design of effective and efficient customer-centric services. Designing better employee experience through organizational services is a step towards achieving better employee productivity, engagement and commitment. However, designing services for employees within organizations of today presents several challenges, complexities, as well as opportunities. The growing discipline of service design needs to explore the usage of various design tools and methods to proliferate wide adoption of service design in the organization. We, a group of in-house service design researchers, designed organizational services in one of the largest, multicultural and multinational IT organizations. In the span of the last four years, we have collaborated with several internal functions of the organization to design service concepts. Using research-through-design methodology and thorough Plan-Act-Observe-Reflect-Refine cycles, we identified various challenges and opportunities for service design methodology; and iteratively developed tools and recommendations to facilitate and proliferate service design for organizational services.

In this paper, we discuss three case studies of organizational services for employees—a referral program, onboarding of experienced professionals, and employee integration within a business unit. Through these, we highlight key challenges and opportunities for adopting service design in the organization, including collaboration and participation challenges, the need for building sensitivity and accessibility to service design, opportunities in the organizational settings that can be leveraged, and other learnings.



Who is the “Designer”? -Exploratory research for the Non-designer’s Design Capability-

Takuo Ando1, Satoru Goto2, Kazaru Yaegashi2, Takuya Nomura3

1Graduate School of Business Administration, Toyo-Gakuen University, Japan; 2College of Business Administration, Ritsumeikan University, Japan; 3Graduate School of Management, Gakushuin University, Japan

This study aims at exploring the design capability of non-designers.

From the middle of the 2000’s, many efforts to apply “design thinking” to business have been made. Design is now considered as the new way of thinking that will lead the current stagnant situation to an ideal sustainable future.

On the other hand, the results of widespread of design to other fields, the boundaries of designer and non-designer are now disappearing. The problem is, although we should discuss not only a skill but capabilities in this academic discourse, we don’t have a clear answer to the question that “What is the core capability of design?” or “Who is the ‘designer’?”.

In this study, we define design capabilities as “human orientation and attitudes associated with creating new alternatives”, and challenge to clarify the difference of designer’s design capabilities and other’s from quantitative research for multiple-industry professionals.

From conducting factor analysis (n=2348), (1) we had developed a scale for measuring design capabilities. The factor analysis (EFA and CFA) suggests that the 15 items comprised of 5 factors: “Experimentalism”, “Optimism”, “Visualization”, “Collaboration”, and “Empathy”.

After that, (2) we compared each score of designer and non-designers. From this comparative analysis, we found that white-collar worker’s score is significantly higher than blue-collar’s in all categories and only the “Visualization” capability score of the designer is significantly higher than other several professions.

Although a general model that had explained the design capabilities was proposed, there are several remained problems. From research result, we would discuss the future direction of design capability discourse.



Customer Obsession from strategy to action in large organizations

Rakesh Sharma1, Madhumita Gupta2

1Cisco Systems, India; 2Atlassian

In today's hostile environment, organizations are looking for ways to gain a competitive advantage. The approach has shifted from being technology-centric to user-centric. On top of that, different organizations follow different methods to advance in the journey from being customer aware, customer-centric or be customer-obsessed. However, there are no standard guidelines to measure how much an organization is customer-obsessed. As evangelized by Jeff Bezos, customer obsession is much more than just listening to the customers. However, what exactly is Customer Obsession (Deschamps & Nayak, 1995)? As it goes unsaid, Empathy is the foundation of any organization with a matured design thinking practice (Marie R. Miyashiro, 2011), but what mechanisms and schematics the leaders in organizations are using to make Empathy an integral part of their cultural fabric? Or being Customer Aware or Customer Obsessed is a mere schematic of an organization's brand story? In either case, it becomes vital to identify how different organizations define Customer Obsession during the end-to-end lifecycle of a product/service development. So, we started to establish a common framework to measure customer-obsession, and in turn, help organizations define what it means to them.

If we assume customer obsession is real and agree it is much more than customer-centricity, we need to find a mechanism to define and measure it objectively. There are various methods to measure an organization's customer-centricity that range from Net Promoter Score (NPS) to Customer Experience Score (CES). Moreover, most of these scores focus merely on capturing customer perception despite being adaptable enough to be applied at an organizational or a product, service or solution level (Hom, 2000). Not many objective measurements can cover the correlation between the internal efforts towards achieving customer satisfaction and the actual perception in the eyes of the customer. Also, the existing mechanisms do not easily allow organizations to discover specific problem areas in their strategy.

Through the proposed framework in this paper, we are looking for answers to a set of questions.

• How might we identify the vision for a product/service/ solution?

• How might we help in self-evaluating the efforts organizations are taking to make the vision a reality and then retrospectively correlate it to the perceived success?

• How might design leadership use this framework to align leaders across multiple departments to drive the strategy towards a central goal of being customer-obsessed?

In this paper we also want to cover what works and what needs to be improved to make this framework better through the feedback we gathered from a set of design leaders from large enterprises who are part of a design thinking community - Design@Business, India chapter.

 
11:45am - 12:00pmDay 3: Morning Q&A
 
12:00pm - 12:30pmDay 3: Break
 
12:30pm - 1:15pmDay 3: R+B: Ximedica + Virginia Tech
 
 

Utilizing Concept Generation to Drive Business Decisions

Elham Morshedzadeh. Ph.D.1, Ayan Bhandari2

1Assistant Professor, Industrial Design Advisor, School of Architecture + Design, Virginia Tech; 2Senior Human Centered Industrial Designer, Ximedica, USA

As the profession of industrial design evolves, it is becoming more of a catalyst for collaborative problem-solving. As a result, a new challenge for design educators is to train ID students to become effective facilitators within collaborative projects, in addition to learning the traditional design and critical thinking skills. The design process is an inclusive procedure and educators must communicate the critical nature of effectively involving a variety of stakeholders. In Fall 2019, the ID program at Virginia Tech, joined forces with Ximedica (a medical device research and design company) to develop a curricular component for their Design Studio course that added a more inclusive, collaborative, and participatory focus to their concept generation and ideation process. They will present the outcomes via a comparison of two student projects.

 
1:15pm - 1:30pmTrack 4 Session 2
 
 

Creative Leadership: design meets neuroscience to transform leadership

Rohan Rama Gheerawo1, Melanie Flory2, Ninela Ivanova1

1The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, Royal College of Art, UK; 2MindRheo, UK

Creative Leadership is a tripartite leadership model that has been developed and pioneered by Rama Gheerawo, Director of The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design (HHCD) at London’s Royal College of Art (RCA). It evolved over the last decade through observation and experience of the limitations of hierarchical models of leadership across a diverse range of sectors. During this, the three Creative Leadership attributes of Empathy (EMP), Clarity (CLA), and Creativity (CRE), have been explored through a range of primary and secondary research methods. The next stage of research and development involves a multidisciplinary convergence of design thinking with neuroscience that relates to brain plasticity, neural connectivity, and emotional intelligence theory. The aim is to develop a comprehensive grid of key performance indicators of Creative Leadership.

Dr Melanie Flory, neuroscience project partner, explains that the three attributes are learnable, and correlate positively with wellbeing-sustaining values and behaviours in individuals and groups. When the cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects of these traits are identified and understood, a three-dimensional complementary feedback loop of Learn – Retain – Apply can ensue through experiential learning and development.

This positioning paper presents the evolution, scope and applications of Creative Leadership alongside a discussion on the emerging opportunities for novel design-neuroscience intersection relating to personal, leadership and organisational development, growth and transformation. It also reflects on the pandemic context of 2020.

 
1:30pm - 2:25pmTrack 4 Session 3
 
 

(Re)Framing the Future: has Covid-19 handed us The New Normal?

Gina Bowman1, Lynn Heather Crawford2

1Gedeth Network, Spain; 2The University of Sydney, Australia

Complexity had become the new normal until early 2020 when an airborne, species-jumping virus exploded the collective concept of normality, and the world was forced to function on the shifting sands of a new pandemic.

The complex environment of the Covid-19 pandemic was used to undertake a qualitative narrative study that explored the following questions: Has Covid-19 handed us the conditions on a societal level to collectively reframe the future and deliver a New Normal? How do narrative tools and processes support this reframing? And, applying this to project management, how can project teams learn to develop future-oriented collective cognitive frames to better manage the uncertainty characteristic of complex projects?

A content analysis of 100 media stories was undertaken, followed by a frame analysis, to study the media discourse surrounding the pandemic. The results illustrate an ongoing reframing process occurred as people tried to make sense of the velocity and flux inherent to Covid-19, which represented the symbiotic relationship between the media stories and the socio-cognitive frames that emerged during the pandemic.

This article is a continuation of ongoing research into the management of complex projects and the development of narrative tools and that processes that facilitate problem solving and innovation..



The adaptive organization: using design’s prototyping practices to innovate in complex contexts

Niya Stoimenova1, Christine de Lille2

1Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands; 2The Hague University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands

Organizations need to continuously innovate and adapt to their complex ever-changing contexts. Yet, most existing innovation practices do not work in complex sociotechnical contexts and often result in ad-hoc oriented management practices. Much has been written on the requirements that such practices need to fulfill. Nevertheless, little guidance (practical or theoretical) exists on viable ways to ensure they can be successfully implemented. The design practice of prototyping can provide the needed guidance due to its ability to identify and address ontological uncertainty. In this paper we introduce a set of dimensions that should be considered as the field of Design moves from prototyping products and services to prototyping complex systems. The dimensions are explained and exemplified through the lenses of our work within a large international airline where we carried out an eleven-month longitudinal process study. During these months, we helped a team of four people to develop and implement a new innovation practice through continuous use of prototyping and involving passengers, the airline’s employees and other departments within the firm. This allowed us to track and reflect upon the specificities and complexities surrounding the notion of prototyping and implementing an innovation practice.



Meaning Innovations with Design Support: Towards Transparency and Sustainability in the IT field

Tarja Pääkkönen, Melanie Sarantou, Satu Miettinen

University of Lapland, Finland

This interdisciplinary article views meaning innovations as socially constructed and reflects on designing in the context of potential harmful consequences within information technology (IT) contexts. In the shift from products towards services, digital platforms and technology designers have gained a mediating and more strategic role while developing multiple connections and interactions between products, touchpoints, users and suppliers. The design manager is involved in organisational strategizing and innovating. Following key principles of design, the context of all those affected by design should be considered. Meaning innovations may emerge when designers facilitate, partially guide and are guided by strategic goals and innovation discourses in organisational settings in conjunction with numerous others. Based on a literature review and reflection on empirical findings, this article suggests paths for designing meaningfulness through an exploration of material lifecycles, digital content, algorithms and data transparency in digital contexts. The concept of meaning innovation is suggested to encourage organisations to reflect on decisions regarding responsibility, sustainability and transparency beyond the mainstream customer focus leading to improved organizational sensemaking and decisions, supported by design.



A design thinking approach to change management

Hal Wuertz, Scott Eshbaugh, Sarah B. Nelson

IBM, USA

Our 110-year-old technology company is once again transforming and a key driver in that change is design. In 2012, IBM's CEO initiated a global challenge: to create a sustainable culture of design and design thinking at IBM, reinvigorating the company’s legendary design program and kicking off a multi-year transformation effort. Over the proceeding five years, The Design Program Office (DPO) at IBM took shape, hiring 2,500 designers, building 50+ global design studios, and developing enterprise-specific practices, the pinnacle of which, is Enterprise Design Thinking.

In 2017, the DPO faced a pivotal moment in the program. After five years of change and 150,000 design thinking badges, there remained one stalwart hold out: sales. Wrapped up in quarterly cycles and nonplussed by internal change initiatives, sales remained relatively untouched by the design program. Design research probes revealed that while every other part of the business—from HR to the CEOs office—had adopted design thinking techniques, most sellers couldn't even define design thinking. The lack of adoption in sales was distressing and painfully ironic—because sales had the potential to be the most powerful part of IBM's design transformation story. Our experience had shown that when client engagements were led with design thinking, they were the most enduring, most lucrative and highest client-rated experiences we delivered. Design thinking was how our clients wanted to engage, and we needed sales teams who could do so. And so, the DPO set about using all the transformation know-how we had, to crack the nut of how to bring design thinking to this unusual audience.

In this paper we present new tactics in transformation, applicable to any change program. First, the use of transformation personas in order to understand a new organization. Second, the role of 'cycles of behavior' in teams, and the value of this frame for behavior adoption. Third, our use of habits in order to modify the behavior of a fast-moving organization. And fourth, our most successful methods for tracking and measuring behavioral change.

This paper also outlines a set of insights on change management, illuminated by design-thinking. Unlike other company transformation stories, the Design Program Office at IBM uses the message as the medium. Enterprise Design Thinking, IBM’s design thinking home-brew, is both the what and the how of the company’s design transformation. Using Kotter's 8 step change model as a baseline, we show how a design-thinking-led approach is the key to fast-paced, meaningful change. Design thinking, provides us with a practical way of navigating complex organizational change, and enables a dynamic approach to an organizations shifting needs.

Today, nearly every single one of IBM's largest accounts has started using design thinking techniques in how they show up to clients. During the program we tracked not only behavior change in these account teams, but increased sales funnels, improved win rates, and most importantly, more well-crafted user-focused deals. The success of this program demonstrates how massive organizational change, even at the scale of IBM, can and should be maneuvered through fast, human-centric, just-enough qualitative research – methods that are essential for change programs of any kind today.

 
2:25pm - 2:40pmDay 3: Afternoon Q&A #1
 
2:40pm - 3:30pmTrack 4 Session 4
 
 

Sensory Sense-Making – Exploring a Practice-Based Research Approach to Support Organisational Knowledge Creation and Strategic Decision-Making

Oliver Szasz

Macromedia University, Germany

Knowledge creation within an organisation is being considered of exceptional importance as a strategic resource in managerial decision-making and has become the most critical intangible asset for companies. In environments, which are for the most part predictable, knowledge creation still can be contemplated as a mere rational approach, based on traditional analytical methods. However, in today’s highly unpredictable and uncertain business environments achieving a competitive advantage requires different approaches. Design with its own culture of inquiry and action, offers specific approaches and methods, which can be successfully transferred from the design domain to the business arena. Employing design with its distinct phenomenological methods of inquiry, non-routine processes and visualisation tools for managerial purposes, provides managers with a multitude of learning instruments to examine and rethink existing organisational models and processes. This research paper consist of reviewing existing research in a variety of relevant disciplines, such as Cognitive Science, Philosophy, Organisational Research, Knowledge Management and Design Science in order to evaluate the hypothesis, that the introduction of socially constructed, multi-sensory artefacts, as embodied representations of tacit knowledge, in the context of organisational sensemaking and decision making will enhance existing managerial methodologies.



Design-Led Innovation: A Framework for the Design of Enterprise Innovation Systems

Andrew James Walls

OCAD University, Canada

Innovation is not business as usual. Yet, many enterprises struggle to build the systems necessary to consistently deliver new and improved sources of value to customers and stakeholders. Through a thematic analysis, expert interviews, systems mapping, and a case study of the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS), this paper presents a framework for the design of innovation systems, called the innovation systems design cycle (ISDC).

To apply the ISDC, designers iteratively plan, build, check, and refine innovation systems. The ISDC framework is supplemented with new models detailing how to map an innovation system, steps to take in implementing an innovation system, modes to gauge the development of an innovation system, and configurations to support rapid, adaptable design. Together they support designers of all experience levels in applying the ISDC to design more resource-efficient innovation systems, with a greater capacity to shape an innovation ecosystem.

The ISDC can be used to build or enhance an innovation system, benchmark performance, frame best practices, quantify value creation potential, demystify innovation systems design, and democratize innovation across not-for-profits and other entities.



Redesigning Design: Can failure be a key to our success?

Rebecca Kelly

Syracuse University: VPA, School of Design, USA

Communications designers’ roles have undergone an evolution in response to technology. How is higher education adapting to ensure a student’s ability to effectively work in the field? The profession and education must work together to enable both to thrive through innovation and creative problem solving regardless of technological trends. A set of attributes was previously identified as invaluable to the future designer; of which, the ability to overcome a fear of failure was deemed crucial.

For one design class, the United Nations offered students the opportunity to collaborate on a large-scale, highly visible project with the potential for significant consequences were they to fail. This pressure can lead to creative paralysis among students who might prefer to offer safe—and mundane—solutions. In order to transcend this fear, students needed to experience failure on a small scale, gain the confidence to overcome it and develop unexpected concepts. But how do students react when they face the reality of a failure? Is it constructive or detrimental? Calculated efforts to fail in a collaborative project with real-world implications can be an effective way to drive innovation if students can use the knowledge gained from their failure to inform their subsequent efforts.



The Impact of Innovative Design Decisions on Future Outcomes

Doris Wells-Papanek

Design Learning Network, USA

To succeed at measuring the impact of post-pandemic co.constructed innovative decisions on future outcomes can be complicated. More to the point, making informed design changes midstream while working remotely under time-critical conditions can result in chaos and problematic consequences.

Challenged by current wide-scale global disruptions, realizing innovative outcomes requires leadership to nurture a shared vision that is of high interest across divergent mindsets. Given the diverse sets of stakeholder perspectives and belief systems on any given team, working relationships depend on establishing a sense of trust and respect. It is essential to provide an inclusive space where all feel safe to voice their knowledge, skills, and feelings. Team members must be able to collaborate in a shared fashion – "including a member of the client group, the people whom the team is designing for" (Papanek, 1992). A sense of empathy for the users, as well as teammates, is crucial.

Within the co.construction conceptual model, each stakeholder serves as a decision-maker as well as a learner. Action research, design thinking, and the learning science methodologies offer the following four critical anchors to this sustainable team-based process:

* Construct in-depth knowledge via strategic and reflective thinking

* Expand the capacity to learn and build on challenging new concepts

* Use collaborative mindsets to tackle the unknowns of the future

* Take an ongoing sense of ownership of how, when, what, and why learning takes place

Even with a well-developed plan and successful remote kick-off launch, it is often not enough to ensure that the development process will stay on track. Without a clear, flexible, and responsive system in place to monitor ongoing progress and support timely adjustments—implementation can fall short. What appears to be promising innovative design can indeed result in short-lived outcomes that are less than productive. Resulting impediments may include false starts, communication disconnects, haphazard implementation, a sense of distrust, or lack of investment in future innovative efforts.

The intentional act of co.constructing a sustainable future, while embracing failure head-on without blame throughout the development process, can be a gamechanger. Co.constructed proactive learning strategies and decision-making tools equip all stakeholders with real-time and viable opportunities to transform unintended consequences into overwhelming successes.

 
3:30pm - 3:55pmTrack 4 Session 5
 
 

Designing Beyond Innovation Theater -- Establishing Best-Practice Models for Internalizing Innovation within Large Organizations

Alex Michael Severin, Vivek Rao

University of California, Haas School of Business, United States of America

Large companies desire in-house innovation capabilities, with a specific interest in innovation methods such as design thinking, design sprints, and lean startup approaches. However, few organizations have operationalized design innovation to drive business value. This work examines the contradiction that many companies’ commitment to design innovation capability often results in a failure to operationalize these capabilities into the broader organization and culture. We interview 14 industry innovation executives from diverse sectors who have found success, failure, and mixed results launching design and innovation teams within organizations, uncovering a narrative of tensions that exists when first investing in and operationalizing design and innovation internally, from mandates to metrics, to structures, teaming, and expectations setting. We detail insights, tactics, and best practices that have proven uniquely successful in proactively solving for these known tensions. This work extends on previous literature describing design innovation in companies from a process perspective to include the unique challenges of founding and launching a design-driven innovation team in a large firm. Our findings contribute to the active dialogue on internal innovation activities and the challenge of implementing design-driven innovation methods, while providing best practices to business leaders encountering these challenges in their portfolio of responsibility.



Design(er) Leadership in Large Corporations

José Manuel Fernandes dos Santos1,2, Sebastian FIXSON3, Carlos ROSA1,2

1IADE, Universidade Europeia, Lisboa, Portugal; 2UNIDCOM/IADE – Unidade de Investigação em Design e Comunicação, Lisboa, Portugal; 3Babson College, USA

While there are still those that believe the chief Design officer is a growing phenomenon, and respected companies like McKinsey have stepped into the arena and provided very important data and insights attesting the importance of Design, evidence seems to suggest that the effect of globalization and trade disputes have made traditional Design led companies like Apple focus strongly on cost cutting, while Jonathan Ive decides to leave the company and pursue his own Design ways with LoveFrom.

When the researcher started this journey, the question he posed was “Why aren’t there more Designers in executive positions in the top 50 Fortune 500 corporations?”, and according to publicly available data in 2017 there were 4 formally educated Designers (Design, art, architecture) in the top 50 Fortune 500 (US) reporting to the CEO, now there are 3. Are we progressing towards Design(er) leadership in large corporations, or perhaps regressing? Can we say that the decade of 2010 -20 that saw some progress in this domain will be matched by a new decade of more Designer leadership, or has Design been so deeply engrained in corporations through successful Design thinking initiatives like with IBM, that Design will be in the hands of everyone and Design leadership in the hands of traditional leaders in different domains, not with Designers.

This paper reports on the progress of research on a doctoral thesis started in 2017, it will present the results of various data collection efforts, among them a survey done with large corporations’ Executives, surveys with senior/ mid-career Designers working in large companies, and the result of 1:1 conversations with more than 25 professionals with experience and credible point of view on the topic. These individuals range from active and past Chief Design Officers, to those that recruit and place them in large corporations, to those that are/ were in N-2/3 and therefore not in a traditional executive role, and those that study the phenomena in academia. The paper attempts to connect the data and provide insights on the state of Design(er) leadership in large corporations and begins to shed some light on what the most important underlying factors might be.

 
3:55pm - 4:10pmDay 3: Afternoon Q&A #2
 
4:10pm - 4:20pmDay 3 Closing
 
Date: Thursday, 06/Aug/2020
9:00am - 9:15amDay 4 Welcome: Carole Bilson, President, Design Management Institute
 
9:15am - 10:00amThursday Keynote
 
 

Business Ethics Design Ethics: 40 Years of Design Management Research

Brigitte Borja de Mozota

Researcher Université du Québec à Montréal, and Executive Director, Designence

Academics and researchers in Design Management build bridges between design sciences and macro economics, industries, innovation, corporations, consumers, citizens. They have provided evidence of the impact of how design integration in organizations reinforces business ethics; whether ethics is seen as of long term vision, ethics of rights, or post-modern virtue ethics. Instead of growth at all costs, perhaps we should focus on business ethics as a new economic model that allows us to thrive while saving the planet. What is the role of DM ethics and design capabilities in driving business decisions towards Corporate responsibility. Stakeholder theory of the firm. Purpose-driven organization (B Corp) Donut theory ?...

 
10:00am - 11:00amTrack 2 Session 1
 
 

Designing Blockchain Enabled Customer Experiences

Clive Grinyer

Royal College of Art, UK

Blockchain technology enables safe and tamper proof digital transactions. Known as the basis of crypto currency, blockchain also has the capacity to strengthen personal data security and identity. A variety of organisations, from the established to start-up, are working to exploit blockchain for personal digital identity but there has been little research into user experience or user value or how to craft simple and trustworthy experiences with blockchain. This paper describes an in-depth case study from the author’s practice of a design project to identify user requirements and develops design principles for blockchain enabled future services.



Tracing Design’s Value in Distributed Manufacturing

Viktor Malakuczi, Luca D'Elia

Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Today, much of the “innovative” design tackles with purely digital products, or physical products extended by digital functionalities or connectivity. Meanwhile, the digital environment of the web deeply impacts the marketing - and increasingly the design process - of purely physical objects which surround our everyday life. The increasing technological maturity of digital fabrication tools has already established the conditions for a wider diffusion of Distributed Manufacturing, an ever more valid alternative to conventional manufacturing in many product categories. Distributed Manufacturing promises a more direct connection between designer and consumer/maker. On the other hand, new challenges emerge around the management and monetisation of the work done for an unforeseeable mass of consumers rather than a single business client. Observing recent trends in other creative industries, this paper outlines three possible scenarios for a stimulating compensation of designers: free, pay-per-download, and subscribe-based distribution of creative works. Beyond simple economic concepts, each of these scenarios operate on a different metaphor, require a different kind of digital infrastructure, and offer a different kind of incentive to attract designers and their efforts. The contribution hopes to help identifying possible strategies that might lead to sustainable business models of design for Distributed Manufacturing.



Creative Social VR Practices in Connected Environments : The 5G Lift for Retails in Digital Urban Context

Heejung Kwon1, Andrew Hudson-Smith2

1Information & Interaction Design, Techno Art Division, Yonsei University, Korea; 2The Bartlett Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, UCL, UK

Human living environments are rapidly changing for the digital evolution that now embarks into its 5G era. The change has not just emerged by technologies, but also synthesised by human interaction, experience, and social perception about values. The city as machine perspective has been debating the systematic nature of urban transformation that is utterly manifested by longitudinal multi-agent interactivity, and hidden ecological factors within places, and people sharing commons. The co-evolution of urban systems might introduce unfamiliar actors of city building practices; the virtual agents and aggregation processes those are not merely replicating real worlds but setting up new cognitive architectures of imaginary habitats. The upcoming 5G network environment is supposed to deliver various opportunities, and innovations to cities that gradually evolve their forms and functions facing the hyper-connected society.

Especially AR/VR/MR technologies are going through massive experimental implications for contemporary cities. In sum, the XR technology related experience consumption industries are nurtured as its new frontiers for the digital generation are projecting myriad possibilities of factual, and imaginary spaces, and intertwining of both.

Social VR platforms such as Facebook Horizon, Mozilla Hubs, Rec Room, VRChat, NeosVR, AltspaceVR, High Fidelity, and Sansar are experimenting human-to-human, human-to-virtual being(AI), human-to-digital space communications which are apparently widening the horizon of human habitats, intelligences and emotions. In our research, we investigated the interactions of human cognition, digital counterparts, and ecological influences of digitally mediated communications in Social VR marketplaces. By conducting the multiple case study, we gathered data from observations, interviews, and design games captured in comparative Social VR environments. Key improvements of Social VR platforms in recent few years have been focusing on natural direct 3D model manipulations, avatar customisation, avatar rigging/gestures/motions, multimodal communications, 3D model-toavatar

interaction, and realistic 3D buildings. The maturity and integrity of these Social VR technical components have been assumed as a prerequisite of Social VR marketplace foundation. Since the HMD supported VR market technology breaking in 2016, the enterprise players have cultivated usable (not yet useful) VR HCI systems for masses. Therefore, now social VR users easily practice their creative works in Social VR environments, and engage more virtual productions, and consumptions in their virtual social context. Our research focuses on the aspect of user empowerment impact by intelligent machine technology to upcoming retail industries in digital urban context.



Creating a Spatial Computing Environment for Design Research and Strategy

Ralf Schneider, Dianna Miller

Syracuse University, USA

This paper speculates on the design and development of an augmented reality-enabled collaborative design environment that would streamline design strategy—from discovery research through definition of principles and frameworks—by combining an augmented reality environment, as offered by Microsoft’s HoloLens, with assistive artificial intelligence. Features that improve the design and decision-making experience would include collaborative tools, real time modelling, and a permissions hierarchy for roles within the environment. We first outline some common practical challenges that are encountered by design researchers who conduct analysis and synthesis of findings, and cross-disciplinary strategic teams who must develop and align around a strategic plan for solutions. Then, we propose a model, through two scenarios for an augment reality-enabled collaborative design environment.

Tools and platforms that enable and enhance remote, AI-assisted collaborative design activities are already emerging and will continue to integrate mixed reality (MR) with machine learning. Our model specifically imagines an augmented reality solution, which is one of several mixed reality technologies. Relying on commissioned research conducted in 2019 by the New York State Science & Technology Law Center (NYS STLC) at Syracuse University, we also review the intellectual property landscape relevant to our proposed vision.

Our aim is to alert the design management community to the value and caveats in spatial computing environments when used to manage remote and co-located collaboration during complex, strategic design/innovation projects. As we begin to design interactions and interfaces within augmented reality-enabled collaborative design environments, our advocacy must necessarily expand beyond usability to include inclusivity, transparency, and attention to unconscious bias. We invite the design community to actively participate in early development of these platforms to ensure they support our best principles and practices.

 
11:00am - 11:15amTrack 2 Session 2
 
 

Apply Funnel Model to Design Thinking Process

Sheng-Hung Lee1,2, Ziyuan Zhu3,6, John Rudnik2, Chaiwoo Lee2, Joseph F. Coughlin2, Olivier L. de Weck4, Jonathan Chapman5

1MIT Integrated Design & Management (IDM); 2MIT AgeLab; 3MIT Architecture (SMArchS); 4MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems; 5Carnegie Mellon University School of Design; 6MIT Urban Risk Lab

The intention of this study is to experiment with the modified design thinking process by leveraging the Funnel Model, a participatory research framework, to increase the opportunity for users to engage and co-create in the product design and development process. The design thinking process is not only about collaborating with trained designers and experts but also working with users and participants to satisfy their needs and to address their pain points. Incorporating the Funnel Model into the modified design thinking process enables designers to distill and integrate research insights into further workflow. The Funnel Model includes the four key steps: (i) Recruit Right Participants; (ii) Select Suitable Participatory Research Tools; (iii) Conduct Qualitative Interpretation; (iv) Distill Research Insights to integrate the voice from the users. In the study, the model was designed and applied to an in-home IoT product design project in the stage of define as an example. Rather than introducing a novel design research methodology, the Funnel Model is a participatory research framework incorporated and built on the design thinking process.

 
11:15am - 11:40amTrack 5 Session 1
 
 

Success Strategies of Mobile Instant Messengers Sticker(Emoticon) Design - Focusing on ‘LINE’ and ‘KakaoTalk’ in South Korea

Eunhye Min1, Boram Park2

1Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

The purpose of this study is to study and analyze the design method for revitalizing the MIM Sticker market through the analysis of the success strategy of the design in LINE and KakaoTalk in South Korea. Today, a Sticker has become a significant communication element due to the development of smartphones and MIMs, as well as creating a new revenue market. In particular, South Korea’s Sticker market has developed relatively faster than other countries, focusing on MIM called LINE and KakaoTalk, and sales in the Sticker market, as well as the offline market, are steadily increasing. On the other hand, overseas MIM's Sticker market, such as WhatsApp or Facebook Messenger, has a significantly higher global share and more users than LINE and KakaoTalk is relatively slow in development and has poor performance.

In this study, through the theoretical considerations of MIM and Emoticon, the importance of the Sticker market in South Korea is recognized by recognizing the importance of Sticker in modern society, and in particular, understanding the size of the Sticker market in South Korea. Among Korean MIMs, we study and analyze Sticker design methods of LINE and KakaoTalk, which serve as a market that connects creative and profit, as well as the role of MIM.

LINE, which has a high level of foreigner's Sticker usage and purchase rate, focuses on analyzing the Sticker's global market, and KakaoTalk, which systematically creates and operates a market linking creation and profit, focuses on vitalizing the Sticker development environment compare and analyze. Afterwards, MIM companies such as providers and producers should expand the Sticker market globally, not just in South Korea, but also activate the platform and environment where users can use and access the Sticker, and seek new ways with constant and deep attention other than the cases of LINE and KakaoTalk to boost the Sticker market.



Congruence of Service Design and Business Value considering Digitally Connected World

Ravi Mahamuni, Shivani Ganwani

Tata Consultancy Services, India

Service Design discipline has by now proven its usefulness. Despite the reliable interconnections between good design and business performance, businesses, at times, lack the confidence to invest in deploying novel service concepts that call for service users’ adopting new ways. The question ‘what is design worth?’ keeps haunting designers and the same holds for service design. In the face of a digitally connected world, the design impact is still not measured objectively with the same rigor of time, effort and cost. Designers even lack showcasing the indirect connection between the design aspects and business value.

As an initial step towards solving this, traceability between the service design interventions and the business value in pre, during, and post phase of service design is essential. The confidence in novel service concepts builds when it indicates the possible business impact. Congruence of service design with business value will help to gain the confidence of business decision-makers. This paper proposes a knowledge framework to identify and visualize the connections between design interventions and business impact to showcase their congruence. The framework is conceptualized through an iterative process and applied on three case studies which demonstrated its benefits.

 
11:40am - 12:00pmDay 4: Morning Q&A
 
12:00pm - 12:30pmDay 4: Break
 
12:30pm - 1:30pmTrack 5 Session 2
 
 

Punter’s Secret: Why Millennials Love That Local Shop?

Eunji Woo, Ki-Young Nam

KAIST, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

This research explored design opportunities and challenges with the emergence of ‘buy local’ trend led by millennials. Design can provide a needs-discovery tool for exploring millennials’ needs regarding local shop patronage and implement it in practice. We built the priori coding scheme, seven types of millennial customer’s desire for shopping experience through literature review. Further, we designed and developed a data collection template, ‘Punter’s Secret’ card, on which participants can define by themselves factors attracting them to their favourite shops and assess them. A workshop with 27 millennial customers was conducted in order to discover their needs on local shop patronage and improvements of ‘Punter’s Secret’ card.

In a result, a code table and customer journey map for Millennial’s Patronised Local Shop were established. The code table shows experiential factors satisfying millennials’ desire in their favourite local shops, and the customer journey map provides insights for experiential design to retain millennial customers. Furthermore, we discussed implications of design strategies for customer retention and effects of bottom-up needs discovery. The significance of this research is in that it provides evidences suggesting that millennial customers’ local shop patronage comes from capturing local shops’ authentic identities and relationship building with proprietors.



A Study on the change of consumer’s brand choice and attitudes due to hyper-connected society (Focusing on Consumer’s purchasing way and C.C.C(Customer Choice Cycle) model development)

Heeryang Ryu1, Boram Park2

1Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

With the arrival of hyper-connected society, people have the ability to actively use digital devices such as smartphones to constantly navigate their options for the best choice that fits them and simultaneously embrace diverse information and contents.

Accordingly, the consumer’s purchasing behavior way of the linear structure (A.I.D.A.) became old-fashioned thing, and the non-linear structure (C.D.J.) was presented by McKinsey to understand the new generation.

In this paper, A.I.D.A. (the traditional linear consumer purchasing behavior way) characteristics were reviewed to see if they were still useful in hyper-connected society, and the need for non-linear form of consumer’s purchasing way models was reaffirmed in Figure2 and 3.

A total of 56 people participated in the survey to see of C.D.J., a non-linear form model, was still valid, and 96.2& said they decided to purchase product by comparing and analyzing various information. In this process, various media such as youtube, Instagram and user reviews were used. Countless information and options available to consumers at the approach stage of the C.D.J., consumers are more likely to exit the cycle of C.D.J. The force to escape was assumed by centrifugal force, and nevertheless, there is the absence of centripetal force to which C.D.J. is striving to circulate.

In the article, the central axis that causes the C.D.J. to circulate was defined as the brand identity, that is, the core value of the brand. As the brand identity is centered, it was confirmed that the consumer purchasing behavior journey was implemented

smoothly. Besides, as the brand identity is centered, the relationship between the brand and the consumer is emotionally connected, and customer loyalty increases as the repurchase are repeated.

Through this, we have integrated thought about the relationship between consumer purchasing behavior path, brand identity, and customer loyalty. In conclusion, a new non-linear model C.C.C. of hyper-connected society, more elaborately developed in C.D.J., was suggested in Figure 7,8 and 9. This is a necessary concept for brand management in modern society, and provides the basis for applied research related to brand management.



Design Management staircase as a measuring unit: The plotting of Cairo start-ups

Jomana G. Attia, Nariman G. Lotfi

German University of Cairo, Egypt

Although there is great need for Design, limited research is conducted on Design Management (DM) in the Middle East compared to Europe. One development in Cairo in the past decade is the increase of startups, generating diversity of offerings. It is believed that the higher a company is on the DM Staircase, the more revenue it gets, among other benefits. Since Cairo startups are aiming to raise the Egyptian economy, this paper aims to define where Design lies by using the staircase as a measuring unit to plot startups against. Narrative interviews were conducted and processed to gain understanding from entrepreneurs and identify common terminologies used by startups. This paper addresses whether DM is used in Cairo but under different terminologies. It was found that existing Design terminology is frequently used in English which is not yet translated to Arabic, leading to miscommunication. Moreover, the paper concludes the plotting of startups against the DM Staircase to classify their Design integration. Evidently, it was found that the level of DM involvement for the startups interviewed was at the lowest two levels. Therefore, this plotting paves the way for business consultants to help elevate startups onto the DM Staircase.



The user-inspired business model for online video platform: A case study of Bilibili and its Generation Z users

Junming Fang, Fei Fan

Tongji University, China, People's Republic of China

With the rapid popularization of the Internet and 4G technology in the past decade, the ecological structure of the online video industry has undergone profound changes. The current mobile Internet has reshaped the communication channels and methods with consumers, which has fragmented the user attention, decrease the user stickiness and loyalty, and impacted the business model of online video platforms.

In China, the mainstream online video websites, such as Youku, iQiyi, and Tencent Video, have entered an intensified race via the self-made content and copyright competition. Although they actively use technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence to identify user needs quickly and deliver the content accurately, they cannot make ends meet due to the single business model and the highly homogeneous content.

Different from the mainstream online video website, one company, known as Bilibili, has emerged as a new force, which went public in the United States in 2018. As an online video-sharing platform based on ACG (Animation, Comic and Game) culture, Bilibili takes user-uploaded video content as the core and carries out real-time interaction through bullet screen. The user-generated content and the active online-community have differentiated Bilibili from the mainstream online video website. These users, mainly born after 1995 and tagged as "Generation Z", begin to embark on a promising venture.

Regarding design as an ever-evolving field that ultimately acts as a reflection of society (Muratovski, 2016), this paper examines the case of Bilibili and its users to gain "contextually-sensitive" information and to gain a deeper understanding of Bilibili's business model from the design perspective. The research consists of two parts. Firstly, we conduct policy research on Bilibili to track the users' involvement with the company incentive policies. Secondly, to identify inspirational responses from its users, we employ Cultural Probes as the research method with the video-uploading users and the videos they produced.

It is found that the combined value proposition of entertainment, sociability and information will inspire both the company and Gen Z users to generate meaningful content for the community and to continuously enhance their stickiness and consumption power in the online video-sharing platform. With the understanding of these end-users and future application scenario, further implications for content-oriented business are also provided from the design perspective.

 
1:30pm - 2:05pmTrack 5 Session 3
 
 

Experience Design in City-based Future Retail Innovation: A Bookstore Case Study Approach.

Yujia Huang, David Hands

Lancaster University, UK

As an indivisible part of urban life, the evolution of physical stores reflects the ever-changing of urban lifestyle which keeps adapting with the development of social, economic and technology. The role of city-based retail stores played in people’s daily life is moved from physical material provider to spiritual fulfilment supporter. Experience design becomes essential to future city-based retailing model innovation. The author has been conducting a research on design for future retailing for the last three years from 2017, collected and visited over one hundred of city-based retail stores in Europe and Asia, and identified cases which innovatively breaking the conventional setting of the types of stores such as everyday use, lifestyle, leisure food, and bookstore. Surprisingly, in the era of internet and digitalization, bookstore as a perfect example which did not tragically go down to disappear but evolving to become more diversify and merged with other services into new retailing business models. In this paper, the author selected five representative bookstore cases from in-depth primary research data to discuss and present a range of retail experiences achieved through human-centred design thinking. The bookstore cases are representing the spectral of retail experiences that new structured retail business could bring values to customers from functional, emotional, and spiritual. During further analysis with the framework of design value for business innovation which author developed from previous studies, the author developed a matrix to articulate the different kinds of experience design directions which would be applied as powerful design thinking method to not only retail but wider business innovation decision making processes.



New business models in a Circular Economy: from Eco to Circular design

Rūta Valušytė, Lina Dagilienė

Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Circular Design and its role in businesses based on Circular Economy principles.

The current economy can broadly be described as linear: natural resources are extracted and used to make products, which are then consumed, and eventually disposed of. Such a business (economic) model limits the efficient use of resources and can threaten long term economic growth. One solution for sustainable economic growth is the Circular Economy (from now on referred to as the CE), which promotes high efficiency of resources, reuse, and longer product lifespans, recycling, and zero waste emissions focusing on Circular Design and technological processes. In almost all papers on the CE, the focus is on waste management, resource efficiency, increasing resource productivity, and decoupling resource utilization from economic growth at different aggregation levels.

Nevertheless, Circular Design is not sufficiently studied. Until now, the studies on design within CE concentrate mostly on Eco-design, which is the systematic integration of environmental aspects into product design aimed to improve the environmental performance of the product throughout its whole life cycle. On the opposite Circular Design uses a holistic approach, i.e., takes into consideration People, Planet, and Profit (as indicated in Triple Bottom Line – TBL approach), the vehicle for changes is Redesign, which occurs by focusing on Systems Thinking, Awareness, Mental Shift, Communication and around the main four elements: (1) Circular Design Strategies; (2) New Business Models; (3) Cross-disciplinary Intelligence; (4) System Conditions. The concept of CE combines complex issues (user’s needs, market conditions, planet needs); therefore, Circular Design practices are more indicated.

In this paper, by reviewing scant literature positioning at the intersection of Eco-design and Circular Design, we provide whether and to what extent Circular Design may facilitate the development of business models based on CE principles. The results can be used for further research. Firstly, this study contributes to the Design Management literature by linking the well-known concept of Eco-design with an emerging concept of Circular Design. Secondly, it provides a comprehensive and systematic point of view of Circular Design strategies used for business models. Finally, the paper sets out guidelines for the future research agenda.



Design beyond the Creative Industries: Surveying design occupations in non-design organisations in Scotland

Iain Aitchison1,2, Esther Steiner1, Alexandra Tinning1

1Graft Design and Innovation Management Ltd., UK; 2Glasgow School of Art, UK

Previous research has shown that the vast majority of designers employed in the UK today work ‘in-house’ within organisations outside of the Creative Industries. Yet there has been little research to understand this population from the ‘ground-up’ that takes into account of the ever-changing range of job titles and scope of specialised design occupations within organisations. Furthermore, existing research has not sufficiently addressed the size and scope of design jobs now present in the public sector.

By analysing job title data gathered from an organisation-by-organisation search of social networking site LinkedIn, this research introduces a framework of 18 design job types produced through analysis of 2,256 design-related job titles drawn from 726 organisations across the private and public sectors in Scotland. Further analysis reveals similarities and differences in the scope and extent of design jobs found across sectors including 16 common profiles of organisational concentration of design job types; and the revelation that 60 per cent of organisations studied have no specialist design-related jobs.

This work intends to start discussion and provide the basis for further research into the designers embedded within the wider economy beyond the Creative Industries, the range of organisational challenges design occupations are being configured towards, and the challenges of successfully building design capability at the heart of non design intensive organisations.

 
2:05pm - 2:20pmDay 4: Afternoon Q&A #1
 
2:20pm - 3:20pmTrack 5 Session 4
 
 

Analysis of Variables to Measure the Value of Design in Colombia

Susana Cañas-Eastman, Santiago Ruiz-Arenas, María Cristina Hernández-Monsalve

Universidad EAFIT, Colombia

The value of design has been quantified by agencies such as the Design Management Institute in North America and the British Design Council in Europe. However, there is no evidence of this type of study in Latin American countries, where the design has been slowly incorporated into business. To the best knowledge of the authors, no literature quantifies the design value in Latin American countries like Colombia. In this article, the variables traditionally used to measure the design value around the world are analyzed and contrasted with the main characteristics and needs of the Colombian design context. This study aims to identify which variables are the most suitable for quantifying the benefits provided by design in Colombian SMEs and discusses the potential implications of their implementation.

For this purpose, we analyzed the literature published in the past fifteen years and validated the findings with experts and design managers of Colombian companies. Our study hypothesizes that the characteristics in the context of the Colombian design, such as the lack of public policies, the ambiguity of the role of design and the few agencies focused on the growth of the design industry, hinder the application of the methods used in other regions of the world. Therefore, we suggest that through the design investment and the financial variable EBITDA - Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization, the value of design could be evaluated in the SMEs companies in Colombia. This research is part of an ongoing project that aims to provide means to support the decision making of design managers in Colombia, considering the characteristics of the local industry.



HOMEGROWN STUDIO: Pushing Collaborative Pedagogy from Studio to Pop-UP

Steven John Doehler, Brooke Camille Brandewie

University of Cincinnati, USA

During the fall semester at the University, 4th year fashion, industrial and communication design students participate in a design/build/sell collaborative design studio course called Homegrown. This studio utilizes a 5-phase process centered upon Design and Trend/Business/Strategy. It promotes rapid ideation through a design, build, test, understand process. At the center of this approach is prototyping and validation. The iterative process concludes with a small batch production of 15 identical products sold at an end-of-semester pop-up shop. This studio has run for five years, with each year seeing progress in innovation, quality, and revenue. Homegrown reinforces the viability of small-batch design and entrepreneurship. This paper describes the pedagogical process and outcomes, with the intent of fostering broader conversations on collaborative pedagogical approaches for teaching design entrepreneurship by integrating design, trends, and business strategy.



Adaptable, Flexible Approaches to Integrating Vertically with SME’s in New Product Development

David Terris1, Peter Ford1, James Meadwell1, Mario Minichiello2

1Nottingham Trent University, UK; 2Newcastle University, New South Wales, Australia

This paper describes the work of a University based Design Research group that has specialized over a number of years in developing methods and approaches to support and assist Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SME’s) in making effective use of design in their business strategies. As part of this work the group has also focused on the role of Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s) in providing this support.

Over the last 15 years, the group has perfected a unique approach to developing relationships with SME’s engaged in New Product Development (NPD) which has resulted in a high success rate of products being developed through to manufacture. It is generally acknowledged that Small and Medium Sized enterprises (SME’s) contribute significantly to a country’s economic performance. However, providing effective, public sector research, development and innovation support for SME’s can be problematic due to their size and diversity. Therefore, the success of this approach, an HEI providing effective NPD support for SME’s, is significant.

The work of this group was described in a paper published by the DMI in 2017 which centered on the Management and Integration of Design Knowledge for Small Firms. That paper considered the support methods developed by the group using examples from specific projects and from several design support schemes for SME’s who were involved in NPD. The need for management and integration of design knowledge with small firms was stressed as was the need for HEI’s to actively participate in the NPD process in addition to acting as an intermediary with players and actors in the process.

This paper goes beyond the issues of management and integration of design knowledge and considers how HEI’s can effectively integrate vertically with SME’s in the NPD process, forming partnerships that are adaptable and flexible to individual SME characteristics and the associated players in the NPD process. Relationships between private sector organisations and HEI’s are often considered to be horizontal; it is also generally accepted that vertical cooperation with customers and suppliers is more effective in new product development (NPD) for SME’s than horizontal relationships with research institutions and government agencies. This paper builds on the earlier work by presenting evidence from recent case study examples, a large UK funded design support initiative, and international collaborations, and considers in greater depth the processes by which this design research group fosters relationships which create vertical integration with the SME’s.



The role of design-intensive innovation: An exploration on digital innovation of SMEs within a Chinese industry context

Zitong Gao, David Hands

Lancaster University, UK

Digitalisation is re-shaping the world economy. Digital technologies offer new opportunities for start-ups and established of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to participate in the global economy. However, the uptake of digital innovation is uneven, and many SMEs are lagging. The emergent theme of design led innovation is well recognized in contemporary academic research. Yet, the association between design and digital innovation remains largely under-explored. Due to the dynamic characteristics of digital innovation, the role of design is becoming increasingly important and complex. Therefore, there exists a need to further understand how design can influence SMEs’ digital innovation.

China provides an invaluable setting for this study. China’s booming Internet environment provide SMEs with more opportunities and possibilities for digital innovation. However, the most of Chinese SMEs face a certain resource constraint and a backward understanding of design; they need guidance for the practice of digital innovation. This paper serves as a theoretical underpinning for further field research activities and provides an understanding of the concepts, characteristics and requirements of digital innovation. Finally, it critically analyses the intensive role of design in digital innovation.

 
3:20pm - 3:50pmTrack 5 Session 5
 
 

“GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD BUSINESS”: AN EMPIRICAL CONCEPTUALIZATION OF DESIGN MANAGEMENT USING THE BALANCED SCORE CARD

Ian Parkman1, Keven Malkewitz2

1University of Portland, USA; 2Western Oregon University, USA

Despite the increasing attention Design Management has received from academics and practitioners a definitive conceptualization or a widely-agreed upon empirical measure of the construct does not yet exist. This paper proposes a new measurement of Design Management based on the informational elements captured in product design briefs. Exploratory Factor Analysis results suggest that Design Management is made up of eleven clusters: F1 Customer Insights; F2 Business Model; F3 Aesthetics; F4 Authenticity; F5 Symbolic/ Experiential Value; F6 Functional Value; F7 Promotions/ Distribution; F8 Sustainability; F9 Production/ Development; F10 Project Management; F11 Risk/ Safety. Our analysis describes how these factors show differing effects on measures of firm performance at the product project- and competitive advantage-levels (for example, F1, F3, and F9 are strongly and significantly positively related to both sets of measures while F4, F5, and F8 are more important to the competitive advantage of a firm than to any individual product offering). Our findings are organized and discussed using the Balanced Score Card for Design Management tool made up of (1) Customer Perspective (Design as differentiator); (2) Process perspective (Design as coordinator); (3) Learning and Innovation perspective (Design as transformer); and (4) Financial perspective (Design as good business).



Design Principles Analysis: A classification to support decision-making for Design Managers in Companies

Isabella Lopera-Osorio, Maria Cristina Hernández-Monsalve, Santiago Ruiz-Arenas

Universidad EAFIT, Colombia

Design principles constitute a guideline to address design processes and support the evaluation of products and services. They represent an approach that companies can make to apply design, as they contribute to their productivity and effectiveness. Design principles benefit different categories, but since each point of view is independent, they are not understood from a common starting point. This paper focuses on identifying and classifying types of design principles found in the literature, to facilitate their visualization and therefore, their application inside companies. To classify the types of design principles five categories were created based on the concepts of Interaction and Human-centered Design and the levels of Jordan’s model of hierarchy of user needs when interacting with products: Safety and well-being, Usability, and Pleasure. The types of design principles were classified in the five categories according to their descriptions. Within the categories, there were found clusters of common principles that highlight twelve characteristics that should be considered in companies regardless the type of design they apply. This article also provides a visualization map that might facilitate the decision-making process to managers and design leaders, focusing on the research and comparison of the design principles.

 
3:50pm - 4:05pmDay 4: Afternoon Q&A #2
 
4:05pm - 4:15pmDay 4 Closing
 
Date: Friday, 07/Aug/2020
9:00am - 9:15amDay 5 Welcome: Carole Bilson, President, Design Management Institute
 
9:15am - 10:00amThe dmi:FuturED Project: A Panel Discussion with Executive Leaders
 
 

Preparing Designers & Design Managers for the Workforce of the Future

Rama Gheerawo1, Ernesto Quinteros2, Dori Tunstall Ph.D.3, Eric Anderson4

1Director Helen Hamlyn Centre, Royal College of Art, UK; 2Chief Design Officer, Johnson and Johnson, USA; 3Dean Ontario College of Art & Design, Canada; 4Senior Associate Dean, College of Fine Arts at Carnegie Mellon University, USA

New market dynamics are blurring the lines between industry disciplines coupled with the effects of Covid-19; and the need for more Diversity in the design pipeline; are demanding that designers acquire new or additional skills. At the same time, design education is being upended by challenges to traditional approaches, and by calls for new methodologies.

 
10:00am - 11:00amTrack 1 Session 6
 
 

Towards a Gold Standard Operations Control Centre (OCC): applying Creative Leadership principles in the re-design of an OCC at a leading international airline

Ninela Ivanova, Rama Gheerawo, Juliette Poggi, Ivelina Gadzheva, Gail Ramster

The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, Royal College of Art, UK

Creative Leadership (CL) is a leadership model comprising the three values of Empathy, Clarity and Creativity, which are considered baseline operational and leadership attributes in a Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) world. This paper presents a case study charting the application of CL principles within delivery of a complex research project involving international collaboration between The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design (HHCD) at London’s Royal College of Art (RCA), a strategic partner – TATA Consultancy Services (TCS), and an airline client [the Airline]. The purpose of the design research was to improve the operational efficiency of the Airline, whilst improving staff and customer experience. This addressed three discrete, yet interlinked areas of delivery within the Airline Operations Control Centre (OCC), namely Technology, Environment and People. The three values of CL – Empathy, Clarity and Creativity – were exercised to align physical, technological and psychological factors. These were implemented in the design of a UX technology that made complex information accessible at a glance, and the re-design of the OCC office environment to enable better communication and personal wellbeing. This paper captures the process and outcomes, whilst reflecting on the efficacy of the CL model as a progressive framework for innovation, growth and development.



Innovating with People: creating an Inclusive Design publication and toolkit

Onny Eikhaug1, Rama Gheerawo2

1Innovation for All AS & President, EIDD Design for All Europe, Norway; 2The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, Royal College of Art, UK

Innovating with People: creating an Inclusive Design publication and toolkit



ARCTA – Building a Design-and-Art-Driven Accelerator for Sustainable and Meaningful Business in the North

Heikki Samuel Ahola, Jari Tapio Rinne, Melanie Augusta Sarantou, Satu Anneli Miettinen

University of Lapland, Finland

Coping strategies have become increasingly important for businesses, especially those operating in geographical peripheries. This paper explores ways of creating more meaningful, sustainable, responsible, long term and, thus, successful business. It draws on design and art-driven, and lean start-up approaches, and combines adaptation, tolerance and resilience with a set of indicators within an Arctic context. The research is based on well-documented case studies in Finnish Lapland and is conducted under the auspices of a centre of excellence and a smart specialisation cluster for Arctic art and design. Case studies and continuing development studies were conducted through ARCTA, Arctic Art and Design Laboratories, as part of the Arctic Design Cluster during the years 2017–2020. The research includes reflective practice and analysis of the different development phases for this Arctic innovation ecosystem.

The resulting vision is used to introduce a framework of an alternative accelerator model for businesses aimed at economic, ethical and environmental sustainability. The purpose of the paper is to establish why the developed framework can be applied and upscaled in the Arctic region and broadened to promote meaningful business development elsewhere.

 
11:00am - 11:20amTrack 1 Session 7
 
 

Dealing with changing environments: prototyping practices in organisations

Jan-Maarten in 't Veld, Niya Stoimenova

Delft university of technology, The Netherlands

Rapidly changing environments force organizations to constantly adapt their strategies and operations. This requires the continuous absorption and creation of new knowledge. To date, little practical guidance exists on how to do so. The design practice of prototyping can be a viable alternative due to its ability to deal with uncertainty and envision possible future situations. Yet, limited research has been carried out on how prototyping is utilized in organizations. In this paper, we present the manner in which a diverse set of six organizations utilize the two main types of prototypes: generative and evaluative ones. Our results show that organizations make extensive use of the latter and very limited and rather sporadic use of the former. We present our findings along the dimensions of purpose, audience and method. The results are based on an exploratory qualitative research with mid- and high-level managers in different type of organizations ranging from a startup to a large multinational organization. The paper is concluded with recommendations for future research.



Design for enabling bottom-up creative thinking in organisations through shaping the workplace

Xue Pei, Daniela Maurer, Francesco Zurlo

Politecnico di Milano, Italy

In order to cope with constantly changing market conditions, organizations need to be resilient, reinventing and innovating ahead of the market. This requires an organisation to be designed and built using principles from science, humanity and also design, the importance of which has been revealed by a number of scholars (Buchanan, 2001; Romme, 2003; Boland & Collopy, 2004; Junginger, 2009; Barry, 2016). It demands also a group of employees who are highly engaged, who come to work ready not only to generate new ideas, but to find meaning in what they do, to make a difference in the world. In order to achieve this goal, it’s necessary to foster situations to involve employees at personal dimension and to create possibilities and access for individual employees to establish their “personal” relationships with the company in various ways. On one hand, it’s fundamental to form a coherent perception on company’s value and identity from individual employees (Balmer & Bromley, 2001), moreover, in contrast, it’s becoming much necessary but challenging to facilitate and cultivate personal contributes, creative thinking from bottom-up (Kelly & Kelly, 2013, Zurlo, 2019), to the company through building a flat organization.

Studies have demonstrated the role of the workplace in fostering innovative behaviors that require a physical and social environment supporting the development and implementation of new ideas, products, strategies, and systems (Hogan & Coote, 2013). Putting employees in the center of a “human-centred design approach”, workplace is one of the most important touchpoints to consider for creating personal services and experiences at work. Employee engagement is correlated with workplace satisfaction and the possibility to control over where and how to work (self-regulation, territoriality), according to the actual trend where the organization offers a variety of work settings among which choose, based on the task to achieve.

How can workplace encourage individual employees to actively contribute to their company? Can it act at a strategic level and be led by designerly way of thinking? If yes, visually and practically how could it feel and look like?

The workplace is a “lens” to identify interpersonal and relational process (Khazanchi, Sprinkle, Masterson, Tong, 2018). This research will not only treat workspace as a design “artefact”, where environment conditions, layout setting and furniture are physical touchpoints to create a human-centred experience. More importantly, workplace is capable to play a strategic role in motivating and engaging individual employees through shaping behaviours and actions.

This research has been conducted mainly through case study method, which include semi-structured interviews and on-field observations to gather first hand data of selected best practices. Afterwards, several service design research tools, e.g. customer journeys and actor maps, have been used to visually present employees’ working experiences when interacting with companies’ workplace. Two important elements: actions/tasks flow, typologies of relationships and involved space elements were considered as the main focus in data analysis phase.

At the end, the research will uncover insights and practical suggestions to guide managers and companies taking actions to create workplaces that are human-centred and boosting bottom-up creative thinking. At the same time, this research reveals that designerly way influences the environmental climate and the culture of an organization.

 
11:20am - 11:45amTrack 6 Session 1
 
 

Designing the Designer: What "an Architect" means Today?

Beatrice-Gabriela Joger

”Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urban Planning, Romania

Today's society is undergoing increasingly rapid changes. People have different expectations and, above all, immediate expectations. Our whole world is also changing in terms of climate and environment. Is architecture ready for this change? Is architecture education ready for it?

By teaching we try to create a new identity for the young person that entered the doors of the School. We try to make it think and act in an Architectural way and as an Architect.

But what "an Architect" means today?

Three directions I think are important, being one architect/designer: Formation/Training, Responsibility and Ethics.

Formation/Training – of the architect has a long duration, complex requirements and curriculum and expensive tools. However, the changes that have taken place in the last century have rarely called this into question, approaching especially the pedagogy. The social implications of architecture began to make their presence felt in the 1950s, and radical pedagogies also influenced more conservative institutions.

However, the skills required of the architect have not changed much since the times of Vitruvius and Alberti. The context, the technologies, yes. And they thus require the adaptation of these abilities, some so specifically human - understanding, the process of thinking, of creation - to the requirements of today's world. But without neglecting the successful transmission of core skills and the development of mental aptitudes to future architects by practicing during scholarship the mind skills absolutely necessary in our field: observation, introspection, analysis, synthesis, communication of the result / solution.

Responsibility - can be assumed only with a maturity in thinking. Hence the absence of miracle children in architecture. From here follows the long journey of professional training in school and after that. The architect in training has to learn how to take the skills creatively and thus to synthesize the knowledge and wisdom necessary to carry out the next steps in the profession. All this ensures that the architect who assumes responsibility for a project does so in full knowledge of the physical (construction), social and ethical implications of his thoughts and deeds.

Hence the fact that the architect has such a great public and social responsibility in materializing the result of his thinking that it still can only be assumed by a highly trained and duly certified practitioner.

Ethics - By creating a personal identity, the architect creates, at the same time, a professional identity and an ethic, a professional deontology, aligned, of course, with the general ones of the guild. Regardless of the scale of a project, the creative approach is the same, and even the machine has a significant contribution providing technical variants and optimizations, ultimately the choice belongs, and must belong, to the architect. And so does the responsibility and above all the ethical responsibility. And this is even more important when one factors in the politics in architecture. Recent writings and manifestos signal the possibility - in the absence of a well-defined human and professional identity - of deviating from the professional ethics of the architect, blinded by the desire to be immortalized by the built.

Therefore, a present challenge is to pass on the ethical values acquired so far and to succeed in adapting them to the present and future world based on the same principles on which they were created.



The Road Map

Silje Alberthe Kamille Friis

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture and Design, Denmark

This study examines a method for designing a creative process, ‘The Road Map’, and its significance to cross-disciplinary, creative collaboration. The context is a joint Master Program between Copenhagen Business School and The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture and Design. Data consists of the course material, written student reports, and interviews.

Findings indicate that The Road Map is supportive to imagining, developing, and orchestrating a shared design process. It enables the integration of diverse perspectives, the combination of individual competencies and itineraries with common activities and goals and turns concepts that are initially hard to grasp into concrete, manageable initiatives that can be delegated. Participants adjust the process together, compensate for pitfalls in the team dynamic, and produce valuable process insights, also for future projects. Unexpectedly, some teams come up with the idea to include their motivation and learning goals in The Road Map, hence forming a link between individual purpose and aspiration and the overall objectives of the course and project, making it conducive to the participants' experience of meaningfulness and empathy towards one another. At present, the method involves collaboration where the participants are physically present. However, future iterations should also enable virtual collaboration.

 
11:45am - 12:00pmDay 5: Morning Q&A
 
12:00pm - 12:30pmDay 5: Break
 
12:30pm - 1:15pmDay 5: R+B: Tata + Helen Hamlyn Centre at Royal College of Art, UK
 
 

Inclusive Design for Creatively-leading Technologies

Rama Gheerawo1, G Subramaniam2

1Director of The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, Royal College of Art, UK; 2Chief Technology Officer for UK & Ireland, TATA Consultancy Services

The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design (HHCD) at London's Royal College of Art, and Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) are working together on people-centred innovation for technologies, e.g., AI, virtual assistants and voice accessibility, as well as more complex projects holistically addressing areas of technology, environment and people in helping large organisations move forward in a digital-first world. The case studies that will be presented will illustrate the power of design and inclusive thinking in bringing together international, multi-partner, multi-cultural teams, to co-create and deliver solutions that positively impact individuals and organisations. The HHCD homegrown model of Creative Leadership has served as a framework for the delivery and informs opportunities and pathways to develop further applications in wider industry domains.

 
1:15pm - 2:15pmTrack 6 Session 2
 
 

The impact of co-branding strategies within the fashion industry- Uniqlo – a case analysis

Yueyi Wang, David Hands

Lancaster University, UK

This paper presents a case study – Uniqlo for explore the impact of co-branding strategy of fashion industries. The contemporary high street fashion brand, Uniqlo is designed with high-quality comfort fabrics and a seasonless product line, and the price is affordable and acceptable. Uniqlo's collaborations with designer brands, designers, are very typical and satisfy consumer demand consumption in today.We find that three main results through case study.Firstly, The implicit impact of social media on consumption patterns, highly interaction with consumers on the internet, and repeated publicity about co-branding collections,so we found that co-branding strategies are inseparably linked to social media support.Secondly, Through its co-branding strategy Uniqlo working with designer brands from different countries such as jwanderson, Alexander Wang, Jil Sander, etc., it has helped Uniqlo expand its fashion marketing in more countries, such as Europe. In addition, its UT series combines music, film, art, comics, animation and other popular elements, and will be presented in a new form, become one of the ways young people express their attitudes to life and show their individuality. On average every two months, Uniqlo launches new line-ups of brands such as Disney, Lego, starwars and Andy Warhol. We find that in order to attract more young consumers, Uniqlo is constantly seeking cross-border cooperation with major brands, and more creative designers to cooperate, give them fresher blood, and more young people in the spirit, attitude to achieve some kind of resonance, but also it can catch the younger generation of consumer groups as an important reason. The significance of this study lies in the profound exploration of co-branding strategies value in fashion industries and their positive and negative effects. It is worth noting that the authors identified that co-branding strategies that do not have clear rules in today's fashion market. . Further research is needed on how co-branding strategies continue effect to marketing and build up customer’s loyalty to the brand.



Designing for an AI-enabled smart service adoption from a user experience perspective

Fan Li1, Yuan Lu1, David Hands2

1Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands; 2Lancaster University, UK

'Industry 4.0', 'Digitalization', 'Internet of Things (IoT)' and 'Smart Services' have become today’s buzzwords due to the advanced development of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Consequently, the world economy has changed from a physical product dominated economy to a more software and service-controlled economy. It is no longer about the product that matters, but it is about the data that is generated by using the product or service. The data arising from the use of products can be used to define new business models and services to foster long-term sustainable competitive advantage. How to create smart services by collecting and using these data is not only an opportunity, but also a challenge for companies to remain competitive in highly dynamic market contexts. Smart services can be defined as services tailored to specific user needs with the help of data and intelligent processing. It requires a deep understanding of users and their particular contexts of use and an intelligent processing of these emergent data. User adoption of smart services should be properly understood, on the one hand; on the other hand, this understanding could be processed to enable smart interventions that support the users and how they interact with this technology on a regular basis.

The understanding of user adoption within smart service research still requires considerable attention. A platform to collect, integrate and process user information and their usage data continuously is, therefore, essential to the development of smart services. In this study, an AI-enabled framework called ‘Smart Service Blueprint Scape’ (SSBS) is proposed to increase the knowledge associated with the user experiences of smart services. The framework demonstrates the elements of smart services by providing an integrated approach from the perspectives of both user experiences and AI system.

With the purpose of improving the smart service adoption, three smart mobility service cases were critically analyzed, through making use of the framework to demonstrate how the users’ experiences were enabled by the SSBS framework. YouTube movie clips of these three smart mobility services were analyzed to collect the data for illustrating how the SSBS was utilized. Through the qualitative analysis, the values of an SSBS framework were identified through three aspects. Firstly, the interactive relationship with users and service provision of the smart services process is demonstrated. Secondly, the integration of user experience and AI system is further elaborated. Finally, the dimensions reflecting characteristics of smart services are identified: the connection among smart devices, AI and support process. Designers can maintain and communicate with different stakeholders within the smart service delivery process. The framework creates the systematic overview for smart service with the help of AI system.



User-generated fashion imagery: Sisters are doing it for themselves

Erik Hansen-Hansen

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, Denmark

This research paper is about the contemporary democratization of fashion image production. Young women who in previous times likely would have been fashion media consumers are now mimicking the dream images of the glamourous pages of Vogue essentially becoming the producers as well as the model subjects of new type of user-driven global fashion image streams. Where the old formula for fashion media business was about using female beauty and seduction in order to sell clothes and accessories, the new user-driven production of fashion imagery (video and photos) through social media has a different purpose: the identity construction, promotion and sale of female hyper-real subjects through the use of fashion imagery and props.

It is argued that a revolution is taking place in the field of fashion imagery because users are going their own way through Social Media, Instagram being the research case. This is reshaping not only the fashion media business but potentially a great variety of industries engaged in promotional activities; in the last instance perhaps even human interactions. On top of this, the business models of print-based fashion magazines are falling apart as the money previously spent on print advertising is channeled into social media influence marketing.



Strategic Design: Constructing mental models through game design & play

Gaurang Desai

Mimamsa Design Research and Innovation Consultancy, Canada

Design’s proven abilities at problem solving and translating between disciplinary, professional, and operational languages, has found applications in other domains including business, health and education, among others. This leads to designers operating at the edge of what they do not know. To be successful in their role, designers must cope with ambiguity as they frame multi-disciplinary challenges and opportunities for industries in transition. To cope with these ambiguities a strategic designer must first develop a vision or a mental model of the domain. A mental model is a mental representation of how things work. This paper discusses the process of mental model development for strategic designers through the making of games and play. It will document a class exercise involving the strategic redesign of supply chains to improve a business’ product offering and by extension, customer experience. The design of games helped create generative mental models that helped students arrive at new inferences about what could happen in various situations. This paper will describe the context, the design of games, its theoretical underpinnings and the outcomes.

 
2:15pm - 2:30pmDay 5: Afternoon Q&A #1
 
2:30pm - 3:45pmTrack 6 Session 3
 
 

Success and Challenges of the Double Diamond in Studio Projects

HERB VELAZQUEZ

GA TECH, USA

The Design Council introduced the Double Diamond framework in 2005. The essence of the framework is the divergence and convergence activities outlined within its four phases of: Discover, Define, Develop and Deliver. Over the years the framework has been used, adapted and updated to suit the needs of its users in industry and education.

Students in the Industrial Design program at Georgia Tech are formally introduced to the Double Diamond and Design Thinking in the second-year design studio. The framework as presented here clarifies the meaning of each of the elements that comprise the framework. The intent is to serve as a foundation from which to build a comprehensive skill set that helps students successfully navigate a range of design problems from simple to complex.

The paper will cover the unique definition of the elements making up the Double Diamond framework, it will discuss the pluses and minuses seen from its use in the design studio, share some examples, and share thoughts on next steps. The goal is for students to continue to care for the process, to develop expertise with the design tools and methods so that they can continue the advance the ‘state of design thinking’ in their careers and in their professional practice.



The relevance of past experiences of the “Good Old Days” in aged care

Shaohua Pan, Enni Mikkonen, Melanie Sarantou

University of Lapland, Finland

The issue of demographic ageing is becoming one of the biggest challenges in contemporary societies, and various professional, academic and political fields have been called upon to find solutions for easing the tension demographic ageing creates in aged care. This paper investigates how elderly people’s past experiences can inform the design process for improved aged care. An empirical study was conducted to determine the meanings that Chinese elderly people attach to their past experiences. The study used interviews and focus group discussions with retired people in the city of Zhuhai in southern China. Following the research analysis, we identified three emerging themes from the interviews focussing on elderly people’s past experiences. These experiences were reported by the participants as having important and perhaps specific meanings for them. The important themes identified in this study were related to the experiences of being in nature, sharing time with family and neighbours and spending time practising skills and hobbies. Such experiences strongly reflect the participants’ lifestyle in their cultural contexts. These experiences have the potential to increase the wellbeing of the retired participants. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of the “good old days” and how design practitioners can apply this concept in their design practices for more holistic and inclusive care of the elderly.



Idea facilitation as a tool for experience and service innovation

Hina Shahid

HS Consulting

Product and Service innovation does not happen in isolation, it requires a cross-functional team— most of whom are not designers and may not even be familiar with design practices such as creative ideation. In digital product or service offering, more often than not the core team developing / enhancing product comprises of multiple functions—from design and engineering to business, marketing and sales, with little or no familiarity with design processes and practices such as ideation.

Ideation has become synonymous with group thinking, cognitive inertia and adherence to status-quo. Similar to what brainstorm became before the prevalence of the term ideation in corporate America—a round table meeting which often gives way to fear of judgment, cognitive inertia, and a lack of innovative, or out-of-the box thinking (Brown 2002 & Isaksen 2005). Essentially, such ideation sessions fail to bring out the value of a group with its breadth of knowledge and varying viewpoints. Additionally, in most cases research is a precursor to ideation and groups tend to narrowly solve the identified problems, resulting in short term product / service changes that lack strategic vision, or a strategic direction often at odds with the actual research insights. The role of ideation is three-fold—to balance the expertise of the participating individuals with existing insights while prompting the group to imagine and envision new realities. But when ideation goes awry it becomes a deterrent to innovation.

Hence, a structured approach to idea facilitation can help achieve the maximum opportunities availed by ideation sessions— creative and innovative product / service ideas. Structured ideation frameworks can discourage linear thinking and encourage teams to think strategically and laterally—by switching perspectives, identifying multiple POVs, challenging assumptions and contextualizing problems.

This paper provides a number of idea facilitation frameworks that enable creative and innovative outcomes when working with a multifunctional team—with design and non-design professionals. These frameworks bridge the gap between insights and strategy and create conditions necessary for creative thinking. Additionally, it provides best practices to help operationalize the practice of ideation and shift the team dynamics. This paper describes testing four ideation frameworks with over 40 participants during three workshops. The participating professionals were a mix of non-designers and designers with various levels of design or creative competencies and the ideation frameworks were employed so that the common barriers to creative thinking and idea generation could be overcome.

The four chosen frameworks—mega trends, jobs-to-be-done (Christensen, 2016), strategy paradoxes (Bau, 2010), strategy canvas (Kim and Mauborgne, 2004) enable cross-functional teams to look at the same insight from different perspectives, in some ways both contextualizing and re-contextualizing the insights—generating a vast variety of ideas, avoiding cognitive inertia and discouraging status-quo-thinking. The idea facilitation and workshop mechanism utilize frameworks in a way that does not require design competencies, making it fit for multifunctional teams. Ultimately resulting in an easy to execute framework that influences strategic and lateral idea generation at scale.



An Exploration of the Creative Cognitive Process by Translating the Observation into the Early Stage of the Product Design Development – Apply the Experimental Project “Design Consciousness: Small Things with Big Heart” as an Example

Sheng-Hung Lee1,2, John Rudnik2, Tim Storti3, Almut Benkert4

1MIT Integrated Design & Management (IDM); 2MIT AgeLab; 3Pearl Creative; 4EMMA Creative Center

This study explores the designer’s creative process through the lens of the cognitive side and how it effectively influences early-stage product development by conducting the experimental project “Design Consciousness: Small Things with Big Heart”. This study contributes to design research by providing a creative framework which categorizes “seeing” into three layers with different definitions accordingly: Observation, Consideration, and Interpretation through an inquiry-driven process. The study facilitated the translation of observations from the daily life into twelve mindful and meaningful design works including the umbrella, brush, toothpaste, stamp, cup, toilet paper holder, clothes hanger and Post-it in the context of early-stage product design development. Using the overall design journey, methodologies and frameworks, the study seeks to explore the designer’s creative cognitive process and how it affects the early stage of product design development. In particular, the study captures interesting and thought-provoking moments through videos and photos, which are not visually attractive compared with professional photography, but most relevant to people’s daily lives. People tend to stay in a bubble of personal adaptive habits without knowing how to better improve their lives by taking small steps. By utilizing the creative cognitive framework, the experimental project endeavors to remind them that whoever is always aware of their own behaviors in whatever circumstances deserves a life with better quality. The study tries to “revisit” products of everyday use by adopting the creative process and framework from the cognitive side.



The role of plot in the space narrative of contemporary museum display design

He Xiuchuan

Shanghai DianJi University, People's Republic of China

Affected by the narrative turn, narrative is increasingly used as a strategic method and tool in design research and practice, space narrative has gradually become an emerging topic in Contemporary museum display design. In fact, narrative cannot be separated from the plot, because the plot is not only the structure and logic of the narrative, but also the core element of the narrative. Based on this, this article takes the space narrative of display design as the object and studies the role of plot in it. This article first discusses the relationship between plot and narrative conceptually, and points out that plot is the key to the spatial narrative of display design. Next, several main roles of plot in the space narrative of museum display design are discussed: the integration of elements, the construction of meaning, the development of story and the organization of structures. Then, the two cases are further combined to analyze the specific phenomenon and method of plot application. This article combines theory with practice to try to reveal some of the more essential laws and methods of contemporary museum display design space narrative from the perspective of plot, which will help create more vivid designs experience.

 
3:45pm - 4:00pmDay 5: Afternoon Q&A #2
 
4:00pm - 4:10pmDay 5 Closing: Carole Bilson, President, Design Management Institute
 

 
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