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Experience Design in City-based Future Retail Innovation: A Bookstore Case Study Approach.
Yujia Huang, David Hands
Lancaster University, UK
As an indivisible part of urban life, the evolution of physical stores reflects the ever-changing of urban lifestyle which keeps adapting with the development of social, economic and technology. The role of city-based retail stores played in people’s daily life is moved from physical material provider to spiritual fulfilment supporter. Experience design becomes essential to future city-based retailing model innovation. The author has been conducting a research on design for future retailing for the last three years from 2017, collected and visited over one hundred of city-based retail stores in Europe and Asia, and identified cases which innovatively breaking the conventional setting of the types of stores such as everyday use, lifestyle, leisure food, and bookstore. Surprisingly, in the era of internet and digitalization, bookstore as a perfect example which did not tragically go down to disappear but evolving to become more diversify and merged with other services into new retailing business models. In this paper, the author selected five representative bookstore cases from in-depth primary research data to discuss and present a range of retail experiences achieved through human-centred design thinking. The bookstore cases are representing the spectral of retail experiences that new structured retail business could bring values to customers from functional, emotional, and spiritual. During further analysis with the framework of design value for business innovation which author developed from previous studies, the author developed a matrix to articulate the different kinds of experience design directions which would be applied as powerful design thinking method to not only retail but wider business innovation decision making processes.
New business models in a Circular Economy: from Eco to Circular design
Rūta Valušytė, Lina Dagilienė
Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania
This paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Circular Design and its role in businesses based on Circular Economy principles.
The current economy can broadly be described as linear: natural resources are extracted and used to make products, which are then consumed, and eventually disposed of. Such a business (economic) model limits the efficient use of resources and can threaten long term economic growth. One solution for sustainable economic growth is the Circular Economy (from now on referred to as the CE), which promotes high efficiency of resources, reuse, and longer product lifespans, recycling, and zero waste emissions focusing on Circular Design and technological processes. In almost all papers on the CE, the focus is on waste management, resource efficiency, increasing resource productivity, and decoupling resource utilization from economic growth at different aggregation levels.
Nevertheless, Circular Design is not sufficiently studied. Until now, the studies on design within CE concentrate mostly on Eco-design, which is the systematic integration of environmental aspects into product design aimed to improve the environmental performance of the product throughout its whole life cycle. On the opposite Circular Design uses a holistic approach, i.e., takes into consideration People, Planet, and Profit (as indicated in Triple Bottom Line – TBL approach), the vehicle for changes is Redesign, which occurs by focusing on Systems Thinking, Awareness, Mental Shift, Communication and around the main four elements: (1) Circular Design Strategies; (2) New Business Models; (3) Cross-disciplinary Intelligence; (4) System Conditions. The concept of CE combines complex issues (user’s needs, market conditions, planet needs); therefore, Circular Design practices are more indicated.
In this paper, by reviewing scant literature positioning at the intersection of Eco-design and Circular Design, we provide whether and to what extent Circular Design may facilitate the development of business models based on CE principles. The results can be used for further research. Firstly, this study contributes to the Design Management literature by linking the well-known concept of Eco-design with an emerging concept of Circular Design. Secondly, it provides a comprehensive and systematic point of view of Circular Design strategies used for business models. Finally, the paper sets out guidelines for the future research agenda.
Design beyond the Creative Industries: Surveying design occupations in non-design organisations in Scotland
Iain Aitchison1,2, Esther Steiner1, Alexandra Tinning1
1Graft Design and Innovation Management Ltd., UK; 2Glasgow School of Art, UK
Previous research has shown that the vast majority of designers employed in the UK today work ‘in-house’ within organisations outside of the Creative Industries. Yet there has been little research to understand this population from the ‘ground-up’ that takes into account of the ever-changing range of job titles and scope of specialised design occupations within organisations. Furthermore, existing research has not sufficiently addressed the size and scope of design jobs now present in the public sector.
By analysing job title data gathered from an organisation-by-organisation search of social networking site LinkedIn, this research introduces a framework of 18 design job types produced through analysis of 2,256 design-related job titles drawn from 726 organisations across the private and public sectors in Scotland. Further analysis reveals similarities and differences in the scope and extent of design jobs found across sectors including 16 common profiles of organisational concentration of design job types; and the revelation that 60 per cent of organisations studied have no specialist design-related jobs.
This work intends to start discussion and provide the basis for further research into the designers embedded within the wider economy beyond the Creative Industries, the range of organisational challenges design occupations are being configured towards, and the challenges of successfully building design capability at the heart of non design intensive organisations.