Transforming Organizational Services through Service Design
Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, India
Service design is being widely adopted by organizations to cultivate a design-led innovation culture and facilitate the design of effective and efficient customer-centric services. Designing better employee experience through organizational services is a step towards achieving better employee productivity, engagement and commitment. However, designing services for employees within organizations of today presents several challenges, complexities, as well as opportunities. The growing discipline of service design needs to explore the usage of various design tools and methods to proliferate wide adoption of service design in the organization. We, a group of in-house service design researchers, designed organizational services in one of the largest, multicultural and multinational IT organizations. In the span of the last four years, we have collaborated with several internal functions of the organization to design service concepts. Using research-through-design methodology and thorough Plan-Act-Observe-Reflect-Refine cycles, we identified various challenges and opportunities for service design methodology; and iteratively developed tools and recommendations to facilitate and proliferate service design for organizational services.
In this paper, we discuss three case studies of organizational services for employees—a referral program, onboarding of experienced professionals, and employee integration within a business unit. Through these, we highlight key challenges and opportunities for adopting service design in the organization, including collaboration and participation challenges, the need for building sensitivity and accessibility to service design, opportunities in the organizational settings that can be leveraged, and other learnings.
Who is the “Designer”? -Exploratory research for the Non-designer’s Design Capability-
1Graduate School of Business Administration, Toyo-Gakuen University, Japan; 2College of Business Administration, Ritsumeikan University, Japan; 3Graduate School of Management, Gakushuin University, Japan
This study aims at exploring the design capability of non-designers.
From the middle of the 2000’s, many efforts to apply “design thinking” to business have been made. Design is now considered as the new way of thinking that will lead the current stagnant situation to an ideal sustainable future.
On the other hand, the results of widespread of design to other fields, the boundaries of designer and non-designer are now disappearing. The problem is, although we should discuss not only a skill but capabilities in this academic discourse, we don’t have a clear answer to the question that “What is the core capability of design?” or “Who is the ‘designer’?”.
In this study, we define design capabilities as “human orientation and attitudes associated with creating new alternatives”, and challenge to clarify the difference of designer’s design capabilities and other’s from quantitative research for multiple-industry professionals.
From conducting factor analysis (n=2348), (1) we had developed a scale for measuring design capabilities. The factor analysis (EFA and CFA) suggests that the 15 items comprised of 5 factors: “Experimentalism”, “Optimism”, “Visualization”, “Collaboration”, and “Empathy”.
After that, (2) we compared each score of designer and non-designers. From this comparative analysis, we found that white-collar worker’s score is significantly higher than blue-collar’s in all categories and only the “Visualization” capability score of the designer is significantly higher than other several professions.
Although a general model that had explained the design capabilities was proposed, there are several remained problems. From research result, we would discuss the future direction of design capability discourse.
Customer Obsession from strategy to action in large organizations
1Cisco Systems, India; 2Atlassian
In today's hostile environment, organizations are looking for ways to gain a competitive advantage. The approach has shifted from being technology-centric to user-centric. On top of that, different organizations follow different methods to advance in the journey from being customer aware, customer-centric or be customer-obsessed. However, there are no standard guidelines to measure how much an organization is customer-obsessed. As evangelized by Jeff Bezos, customer obsession is much more than just listening to the customers. However, what exactly is Customer Obsession (Deschamps & Nayak, 1995)? As it goes unsaid, Empathy is the foundation of any organization with a matured design thinking practice (Marie R. Miyashiro, 2011), but what mechanisms and schematics the leaders in organizations are using to make Empathy an integral part of their cultural fabric? Or being Customer Aware or Customer Obsessed is a mere schematic of an organization's brand story? In either case, it becomes vital to identify how different organizations define Customer Obsession during the end-to-end lifecycle of a product/service development. So, we started to establish a common framework to measure customer-obsession, and in turn, help organizations define what it means to them.
If we assume customer obsession is real and agree it is much more than customer-centricity, we need to find a mechanism to define and measure it objectively. There are various methods to measure an organization's customer-centricity that range from Net Promoter Score (NPS) to Customer Experience Score (CES). Moreover, most of these scores focus merely on capturing customer perception despite being adaptable enough to be applied at an organizational or a product, service or solution level (Hom, 2000). Not many objective measurements can cover the correlation between the internal efforts towards achieving customer satisfaction and the actual perception in the eyes of the customer. Also, the existing mechanisms do not easily allow organizations to discover specific problem areas in their strategy.
Through the proposed framework in this paper, we are looking for answers to a set of questions.
• How might we identify the vision for a product/service/ solution?
• How might we help in self-evaluating the efforts organizations are taking to make the vision a reality and then retrospectively correlate it to the perceived success?
• How might design leadership use this framework to align leaders across multiple departments to drive the strategy towards a central goal of being customer-obsessed?
In this paper we also want to cover what works and what needs to be improved to make this framework better through the feedback we gathered from a set of design leaders from large enterprises who are part of a design thinking community - Design@Business, India chapter.