Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Session Overview
Date: Thursday, 06/Aug/2020
9:00am - 9:15amDay 4 Welcome: Carole Bilson, President, Design Management Institute
9:15am - 10:00amThursday Keynote

Business Ethics Design Ethics: 40 Years of Design Management Research

Brigitte Borja de Mozota

Researcher Université du Québec à Montréal, and Executive Director, Designence

Academics and researchers in Design Management build bridges between design sciences and macro economics, industries, innovation, corporations, consumers, citizens. They have provided evidence of the impact of how design integration in organizations reinforces business ethics; whether ethics is seen as of long term vision, ethics of rights, or post-modern virtue ethics. Instead of growth at all costs, perhaps we should focus on business ethics as a new economic model that allows us to thrive while saving the planet. What is the role of DM ethics and design capabilities in driving business decisions towards Corporate responsibility. Stakeholder theory of the firm. Purpose-driven organization (B Corp) Donut theory ?...

10:00am - 11:00amTrack 2 Session 1

Designing Blockchain Enabled Customer Experiences

Clive Grinyer

Royal College of Art, UK

Blockchain technology enables safe and tamper proof digital transactions. Known as the basis of crypto currency, blockchain also has the capacity to strengthen personal data security and identity. A variety of organisations, from the established to start-up, are working to exploit blockchain for personal digital identity but there has been little research into user experience or user value or how to craft simple and trustworthy experiences with blockchain. This paper describes an in-depth case study from the author’s practice of a design project to identify user requirements and develops design principles for blockchain enabled future services.

Tracing Design’s Value in Distributed Manufacturing

Viktor Malakuczi, Luca D'Elia

Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Today, much of the “innovative” design tackles with purely digital products, or physical products extended by digital functionalities or connectivity. Meanwhile, the digital environment of the web deeply impacts the marketing - and increasingly the design process - of purely physical objects which surround our everyday life. The increasing technological maturity of digital fabrication tools has already established the conditions for a wider diffusion of Distributed Manufacturing, an ever more valid alternative to conventional manufacturing in many product categories. Distributed Manufacturing promises a more direct connection between designer and consumer/maker. On the other hand, new challenges emerge around the management and monetisation of the work done for an unforeseeable mass of consumers rather than a single business client. Observing recent trends in other creative industries, this paper outlines three possible scenarios for a stimulating compensation of designers: free, pay-per-download, and subscribe-based distribution of creative works. Beyond simple economic concepts, each of these scenarios operate on a different metaphor, require a different kind of digital infrastructure, and offer a different kind of incentive to attract designers and their efforts. The contribution hopes to help identifying possible strategies that might lead to sustainable business models of design for Distributed Manufacturing.

Creative Social VR Practices in Connected Environments : The 5G Lift for Retails in Digital Urban Context

Heejung Kwon1, Andrew Hudson-Smith2

1Information & Interaction Design, Techno Art Division, Yonsei University, Korea; 2The Bartlett Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, UCL, UK

Human living environments are rapidly changing for the digital evolution that now embarks into its 5G era. The change has not just emerged by technologies, but also synthesised by human interaction, experience, and social perception about values. The city as machine perspective has been debating the systematic nature of urban transformation that is utterly manifested by longitudinal multi-agent interactivity, and hidden ecological factors within places, and people sharing commons. The co-evolution of urban systems might introduce unfamiliar actors of city building practices; the virtual agents and aggregation processes those are not merely replicating real worlds but setting up new cognitive architectures of imaginary habitats. The upcoming 5G network environment is supposed to deliver various opportunities, and innovations to cities that gradually evolve their forms and functions facing the hyper-connected society.

Especially AR/VR/MR technologies are going through massive experimental implications for contemporary cities. In sum, the XR technology related experience consumption industries are nurtured as its new frontiers for the digital generation are projecting myriad possibilities of factual, and imaginary spaces, and intertwining of both.

Social VR platforms such as Facebook Horizon, Mozilla Hubs, Rec Room, VRChat, NeosVR, AltspaceVR, High Fidelity, and Sansar are experimenting human-to-human, human-to-virtual being(AI), human-to-digital space communications which are apparently widening the horizon of human habitats, intelligences and emotions. In our research, we investigated the interactions of human cognition, digital counterparts, and ecological influences of digitally mediated communications in Social VR marketplaces. By conducting the multiple case study, we gathered data from observations, interviews, and design games captured in comparative Social VR environments. Key improvements of Social VR platforms in recent few years have been focusing on natural direct 3D model manipulations, avatar customisation, avatar rigging/gestures/motions, multimodal communications, 3D model-toavatar

interaction, and realistic 3D buildings. The maturity and integrity of these Social VR technical components have been assumed as a prerequisite of Social VR marketplace foundation. Since the HMD supported VR market technology breaking in 2016, the enterprise players have cultivated usable (not yet useful) VR HCI systems for masses. Therefore, now social VR users easily practice their creative works in Social VR environments, and engage more virtual productions, and consumptions in their virtual social context. Our research focuses on the aspect of user empowerment impact by intelligent machine technology to upcoming retail industries in digital urban context.

Creating a Spatial Computing Environment for Design Research and Strategy

Ralf Schneider, Dianna Miller

Syracuse University, USA

This paper speculates on the design and development of an augmented reality-enabled collaborative design environment that would streamline design strategy—from discovery research through definition of principles and frameworks—by combining an augmented reality environment, as offered by Microsoft’s HoloLens, with assistive artificial intelligence. Features that improve the design and decision-making experience would include collaborative tools, real time modelling, and a permissions hierarchy for roles within the environment. We first outline some common practical challenges that are encountered by design researchers who conduct analysis and synthesis of findings, and cross-disciplinary strategic teams who must develop and align around a strategic plan for solutions. Then, we propose a model, through two scenarios for an augment reality-enabled collaborative design environment.

Tools and platforms that enable and enhance remote, AI-assisted collaborative design activities are already emerging and will continue to integrate mixed reality (MR) with machine learning. Our model specifically imagines an augmented reality solution, which is one of several mixed reality technologies. Relying on commissioned research conducted in 2019 by the New York State Science & Technology Law Center (NYS STLC) at Syracuse University, we also review the intellectual property landscape relevant to our proposed vision.

Our aim is to alert the design management community to the value and caveats in spatial computing environments when used to manage remote and co-located collaboration during complex, strategic design/innovation projects. As we begin to design interactions and interfaces within augmented reality-enabled collaborative design environments, our advocacy must necessarily expand beyond usability to include inclusivity, transparency, and attention to unconscious bias. We invite the design community to actively participate in early development of these platforms to ensure they support our best principles and practices.

11:00am - 11:15amTrack 2 Session 2

Apply Funnel Model to Design Thinking Process

Sheng-Hung Lee1,2, Ziyuan Zhu3,6, John Rudnik2, Chaiwoo Lee2, Joseph F. Coughlin2, Olivier L. de Weck4, Jonathan Chapman5

1MIT Integrated Design & Management (IDM); 2MIT AgeLab; 3MIT Architecture (SMArchS); 4MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems; 5Carnegie Mellon University School of Design; 6MIT Urban Risk Lab

The intention of this study is to experiment with the modified design thinking process by leveraging the Funnel Model, a participatory research framework, to increase the opportunity for users to engage and co-create in the product design and development process. The design thinking process is not only about collaborating with trained designers and experts but also working with users and participants to satisfy their needs and to address their pain points. Incorporating the Funnel Model into the modified design thinking process enables designers to distill and integrate research insights into further workflow. The Funnel Model includes the four key steps: (i) Recruit Right Participants; (ii) Select Suitable Participatory Research Tools; (iii) Conduct Qualitative Interpretation; (iv) Distill Research Insights to integrate the voice from the users. In the study, the model was designed and applied to an in-home IoT product design project in the stage of define as an example. Rather than introducing a novel design research methodology, the Funnel Model is a participatory research framework incorporated and built on the design thinking process.

11:15am - 11:40amTrack 5 Session 1

Success Strategies of Mobile Instant Messengers Sticker(Emoticon) Design - Focusing on ‘LINE’ and ‘KakaoTalk’ in South Korea

Eunhye Min1, Boram Park2

1Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

The purpose of this study is to study and analyze the design method for revitalizing the MIM Sticker market through the analysis of the success strategy of the design in LINE and KakaoTalk in South Korea. Today, a Sticker has become a significant communication element due to the development of smartphones and MIMs, as well as creating a new revenue market. In particular, South Korea’s Sticker market has developed relatively faster than other countries, focusing on MIM called LINE and KakaoTalk, and sales in the Sticker market, as well as the offline market, are steadily increasing. On the other hand, overseas MIM's Sticker market, such as WhatsApp or Facebook Messenger, has a significantly higher global share and more users than LINE and KakaoTalk is relatively slow in development and has poor performance.

In this study, through the theoretical considerations of MIM and Emoticon, the importance of the Sticker market in South Korea is recognized by recognizing the importance of Sticker in modern society, and in particular, understanding the size of the Sticker market in South Korea. Among Korean MIMs, we study and analyze Sticker design methods of LINE and KakaoTalk, which serve as a market that connects creative and profit, as well as the role of MIM.

LINE, which has a high level of foreigner's Sticker usage and purchase rate, focuses on analyzing the Sticker's global market, and KakaoTalk, which systematically creates and operates a market linking creation and profit, focuses on vitalizing the Sticker development environment compare and analyze. Afterwards, MIM companies such as providers and producers should expand the Sticker market globally, not just in South Korea, but also activate the platform and environment where users can use and access the Sticker, and seek new ways with constant and deep attention other than the cases of LINE and KakaoTalk to boost the Sticker market.

Congruence of Service Design and Business Value considering Digitally Connected World

Ravi Mahamuni, Shivani Ganwani

Tata Consultancy Services, India

Service Design discipline has by now proven its usefulness. Despite the reliable interconnections between good design and business performance, businesses, at times, lack the confidence to invest in deploying novel service concepts that call for service users’ adopting new ways. The question ‘what is design worth?’ keeps haunting designers and the same holds for service design. In the face of a digitally connected world, the design impact is still not measured objectively with the same rigor of time, effort and cost. Designers even lack showcasing the indirect connection between the design aspects and business value.

As an initial step towards solving this, traceability between the service design interventions and the business value in pre, during, and post phase of service design is essential. The confidence in novel service concepts builds when it indicates the possible business impact. Congruence of service design with business value will help to gain the confidence of business decision-makers. This paper proposes a knowledge framework to identify and visualize the connections between design interventions and business impact to showcase their congruence. The framework is conceptualized through an iterative process and applied on three case studies which demonstrated its benefits.

11:40am - 12:00pmDay 4: Morning Q&A
12:00pm - 12:30pmDay 4: Break
12:30pm - 1:30pmTrack 5 Session 2

Punter’s Secret: Why Millennials Love That Local Shop?

Eunji Woo, Ki-Young Nam

KAIST, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

This research explored design opportunities and challenges with the emergence of ‘buy local’ trend led by millennials. Design can provide a needs-discovery tool for exploring millennials’ needs regarding local shop patronage and implement it in practice. We built the priori coding scheme, seven types of millennial customer’s desire for shopping experience through literature review. Further, we designed and developed a data collection template, ‘Punter’s Secret’ card, on which participants can define by themselves factors attracting them to their favourite shops and assess them. A workshop with 27 millennial customers was conducted in order to discover their needs on local shop patronage and improvements of ‘Punter’s Secret’ card.

In a result, a code table and customer journey map for Millennial’s Patronised Local Shop were established. The code table shows experiential factors satisfying millennials’ desire in their favourite local shops, and the customer journey map provides insights for experiential design to retain millennial customers. Furthermore, we discussed implications of design strategies for customer retention and effects of bottom-up needs discovery. The significance of this research is in that it provides evidences suggesting that millennial customers’ local shop patronage comes from capturing local shops’ authentic identities and relationship building with proprietors.

A Study on the change of consumer’s brand choice and attitudes due to hyper-connected society (Focusing on Consumer’s purchasing way and C.C.C(Customer Choice Cycle) model development)

Heeryang Ryu1, Boram Park2

1Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Hongik University IDAS, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

With the arrival of hyper-connected society, people have the ability to actively use digital devices such as smartphones to constantly navigate their options for the best choice that fits them and simultaneously embrace diverse information and contents.

Accordingly, the consumer’s purchasing behavior way of the linear structure (A.I.D.A.) became old-fashioned thing, and the non-linear structure (C.D.J.) was presented by McKinsey to understand the new generation.

In this paper, A.I.D.A. (the traditional linear consumer purchasing behavior way) characteristics were reviewed to see if they were still useful in hyper-connected society, and the need for non-linear form of consumer’s purchasing way models was reaffirmed in Figure2 and 3.

A total of 56 people participated in the survey to see of C.D.J., a non-linear form model, was still valid, and 96.2& said they decided to purchase product by comparing and analyzing various information. In this process, various media such as youtube, Instagram and user reviews were used. Countless information and options available to consumers at the approach stage of the C.D.J., consumers are more likely to exit the cycle of C.D.J. The force to escape was assumed by centrifugal force, and nevertheless, there is the absence of centripetal force to which C.D.J. is striving to circulate.

In the article, the central axis that causes the C.D.J. to circulate was defined as the brand identity, that is, the core value of the brand. As the brand identity is centered, it was confirmed that the consumer purchasing behavior journey was implemented

smoothly. Besides, as the brand identity is centered, the relationship between the brand and the consumer is emotionally connected, and customer loyalty increases as the repurchase are repeated.

Through this, we have integrated thought about the relationship between consumer purchasing behavior path, brand identity, and customer loyalty. In conclusion, a new non-linear model C.C.C. of hyper-connected society, more elaborately developed in C.D.J., was suggested in Figure 7,8 and 9. This is a necessary concept for brand management in modern society, and provides the basis for applied research related to brand management.

Design Management staircase as a measuring unit: The plotting of Cairo start-ups

Jomana G. Attia, Nariman G. Lotfi

German University of Cairo, Egypt

Although there is great need for Design, limited research is conducted on Design Management (DM) in the Middle East compared to Europe. One development in Cairo in the past decade is the increase of startups, generating diversity of offerings. It is believed that the higher a company is on the DM Staircase, the more revenue it gets, among other benefits. Since Cairo startups are aiming to raise the Egyptian economy, this paper aims to define where Design lies by using the staircase as a measuring unit to plot startups against. Narrative interviews were conducted and processed to gain understanding from entrepreneurs and identify common terminologies used by startups. This paper addresses whether DM is used in Cairo but under different terminologies. It was found that existing Design terminology is frequently used in English which is not yet translated to Arabic, leading to miscommunication. Moreover, the paper concludes the plotting of startups against the DM Staircase to classify their Design integration. Evidently, it was found that the level of DM involvement for the startups interviewed was at the lowest two levels. Therefore, this plotting paves the way for business consultants to help elevate startups onto the DM Staircase.

The user-inspired business model for online video platform: A case study of Bilibili and its Generation Z users

Junming Fang, Fei Fan

Tongji University, China, People's Republic of China

With the rapid popularization of the Internet and 4G technology in the past decade, the ecological structure of the online video industry has undergone profound changes. The current mobile Internet has reshaped the communication channels and methods with consumers, which has fragmented the user attention, decrease the user stickiness and loyalty, and impacted the business model of online video platforms.

In China, the mainstream online video websites, such as Youku, iQiyi, and Tencent Video, have entered an intensified race via the self-made content and copyright competition. Although they actively use technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence to identify user needs quickly and deliver the content accurately, they cannot make ends meet due to the single business model and the highly homogeneous content.

Different from the mainstream online video website, one company, known as Bilibili, has emerged as a new force, which went public in the United States in 2018. As an online video-sharing platform based on ACG (Animation, Comic and Game) culture, Bilibili takes user-uploaded video content as the core and carries out real-time interaction through bullet screen. The user-generated content and the active online-community have differentiated Bilibili from the mainstream online video website. These users, mainly born after 1995 and tagged as "Generation Z", begin to embark on a promising venture.

Regarding design as an ever-evolving field that ultimately acts as a reflection of society (Muratovski, 2016), this paper examines the case of Bilibili and its users to gain "contextually-sensitive" information and to gain a deeper understanding of Bilibili's business model from the design perspective. The research consists of two parts. Firstly, we conduct policy research on Bilibili to track the users' involvement with the company incentive policies. Secondly, to identify inspirational responses from its users, we employ Cultural Probes as the research method with the video-uploading users and the videos they produced.

It is found that the combined value proposition of entertainment, sociability and information will inspire both the company and Gen Z users to generate meaningful content for the community and to continuously enhance their stickiness and consumption power in the online video-sharing platform. With the understanding of these end-users and future application scenario, further implications for content-oriented business are also provided from the design perspective.

1:30pm - 2:05pmTrack 5 Session 3

Experience Design in City-based Future Retail Innovation: A Bookstore Case Study Approach.

Yujia Huang, David Hands

Lancaster University, UK

As an indivisible part of urban life, the evolution of physical stores reflects the ever-changing of urban lifestyle which keeps adapting with the development of social, economic and technology. The role of city-based retail stores played in people’s daily life is moved from physical material provider to spiritual fulfilment supporter. Experience design becomes essential to future city-based retailing model innovation. The author has been conducting a research on design for future retailing for the last three years from 2017, collected and visited over one hundred of city-based retail stores in Europe and Asia, and identified cases which innovatively breaking the conventional setting of the types of stores such as everyday use, lifestyle, leisure food, and bookstore. Surprisingly, in the era of internet and digitalization, bookstore as a perfect example which did not tragically go down to disappear but evolving to become more diversify and merged with other services into new retailing business models. In this paper, the author selected five representative bookstore cases from in-depth primary research data to discuss and present a range of retail experiences achieved through human-centred design thinking. The bookstore cases are representing the spectral of retail experiences that new structured retail business could bring values to customers from functional, emotional, and spiritual. During further analysis with the framework of design value for business innovation which author developed from previous studies, the author developed a matrix to articulate the different kinds of experience design directions which would be applied as powerful design thinking method to not only retail but wider business innovation decision making processes.

New business models in a Circular Economy: from Eco to Circular design

Rūta Valušytė, Lina Dagilienė

Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Circular Design and its role in businesses based on Circular Economy principles.

The current economy can broadly be described as linear: natural resources are extracted and used to make products, which are then consumed, and eventually disposed of. Such a business (economic) model limits the efficient use of resources and can threaten long term economic growth. One solution for sustainable economic growth is the Circular Economy (from now on referred to as the CE), which promotes high efficiency of resources, reuse, and longer product lifespans, recycling, and zero waste emissions focusing on Circular Design and technological processes. In almost all papers on the CE, the focus is on waste management, resource efficiency, increasing resource productivity, and decoupling resource utilization from economic growth at different aggregation levels.

Nevertheless, Circular Design is not sufficiently studied. Until now, the studies on design within CE concentrate mostly on Eco-design, which is the systematic integration of environmental aspects into product design aimed to improve the environmental performance of the product throughout its whole life cycle. On the opposite Circular Design uses a holistic approach, i.e., takes into consideration People, Planet, and Profit (as indicated in Triple Bottom Line – TBL approach), the vehicle for changes is Redesign, which occurs by focusing on Systems Thinking, Awareness, Mental Shift, Communication and around the main four elements: (1) Circular Design Strategies; (2) New Business Models; (3) Cross-disciplinary Intelligence; (4) System Conditions. The concept of CE combines complex issues (user’s needs, market conditions, planet needs); therefore, Circular Design practices are more indicated.

In this paper, by reviewing scant literature positioning at the intersection of Eco-design and Circular Design, we provide whether and to what extent Circular Design may facilitate the development of business models based on CE principles. The results can be used for further research. Firstly, this study contributes to the Design Management literature by linking the well-known concept of Eco-design with an emerging concept of Circular Design. Secondly, it provides a comprehensive and systematic point of view of Circular Design strategies used for business models. Finally, the paper sets out guidelines for the future research agenda.

Design beyond the Creative Industries: Surveying design occupations in non-design organisations in Scotland

Iain Aitchison1,2, Esther Steiner1, Alexandra Tinning1

1Graft Design and Innovation Management Ltd., UK; 2Glasgow School of Art, UK

Previous research has shown that the vast majority of designers employed in the UK today work ‘in-house’ within organisations outside of the Creative Industries. Yet there has been little research to understand this population from the ‘ground-up’ that takes into account of the ever-changing range of job titles and scope of specialised design occupations within organisations. Furthermore, existing research has not sufficiently addressed the size and scope of design jobs now present in the public sector.

By analysing job title data gathered from an organisation-by-organisation search of social networking site LinkedIn, this research introduces a framework of 18 design job types produced through analysis of 2,256 design-related job titles drawn from 726 organisations across the private and public sectors in Scotland. Further analysis reveals similarities and differences in the scope and extent of design jobs found across sectors including 16 common profiles of organisational concentration of design job types; and the revelation that 60 per cent of organisations studied have no specialist design-related jobs.

This work intends to start discussion and provide the basis for further research into the designers embedded within the wider economy beyond the Creative Industries, the range of organisational challenges design occupations are being configured towards, and the challenges of successfully building design capability at the heart of non design intensive organisations.

2:05pm - 2:20pmDay 4: Afternoon Q&A #1
2:20pm - 3:20pmTrack 5 Session 4

Analysis of Variables to Measure the Value of Design in Colombia

Susana Cañas-Eastman, Santiago Ruiz-Arenas, María Cristina Hernández-Monsalve

Universidad EAFIT, Colombia

The value of design has been quantified by agencies such as the Design Management Institute in North America and the British Design Council in Europe. However, there is no evidence of this type of study in Latin American countries, where the design has been slowly incorporated into business. To the best knowledge of the authors, no literature quantifies the design value in Latin American countries like Colombia. In this article, the variables traditionally used to measure the design value around the world are analyzed and contrasted with the main characteristics and needs of the Colombian design context. This study aims to identify which variables are the most suitable for quantifying the benefits provided by design in Colombian SMEs and discusses the potential implications of their implementation.

For this purpose, we analyzed the literature published in the past fifteen years and validated the findings with experts and design managers of Colombian companies. Our study hypothesizes that the characteristics in the context of the Colombian design, such as the lack of public policies, the ambiguity of the role of design and the few agencies focused on the growth of the design industry, hinder the application of the methods used in other regions of the world. Therefore, we suggest that through the design investment and the financial variable EBITDA - Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization, the value of design could be evaluated in the SMEs companies in Colombia. This research is part of an ongoing project that aims to provide means to support the decision making of design managers in Colombia, considering the characteristics of the local industry.

HOMEGROWN STUDIO: Pushing Collaborative Pedagogy from Studio to Pop-UP

Steven John Doehler, Brooke Camille Brandewie

University of Cincinnati, USA

During the fall semester at the University, 4th year fashion, industrial and communication design students participate in a design/build/sell collaborative design studio course called Homegrown. This studio utilizes a 5-phase process centered upon Design and Trend/Business/Strategy. It promotes rapid ideation through a design, build, test, understand process. At the center of this approach is prototyping and validation. The iterative process concludes with a small batch production of 15 identical products sold at an end-of-semester pop-up shop. This studio has run for five years, with each year seeing progress in innovation, quality, and revenue. Homegrown reinforces the viability of small-batch design and entrepreneurship. This paper describes the pedagogical process and outcomes, with the intent of fostering broader conversations on collaborative pedagogical approaches for teaching design entrepreneurship by integrating design, trends, and business strategy.

Adaptable, Flexible Approaches to Integrating Vertically with SME’s in New Product Development

David Terris1, Peter Ford1, James Meadwell1, Mario Minichiello2

1Nottingham Trent University, UK; 2Newcastle University, New South Wales, Australia

This paper describes the work of a University based Design Research group that has specialized over a number of years in developing methods and approaches to support and assist Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SME’s) in making effective use of design in their business strategies. As part of this work the group has also focused on the role of Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s) in providing this support.

Over the last 15 years, the group has perfected a unique approach to developing relationships with SME’s engaged in New Product Development (NPD) which has resulted in a high success rate of products being developed through to manufacture. It is generally acknowledged that Small and Medium Sized enterprises (SME’s) contribute significantly to a country’s economic performance. However, providing effective, public sector research, development and innovation support for SME’s can be problematic due to their size and diversity. Therefore, the success of this approach, an HEI providing effective NPD support for SME’s, is significant.

The work of this group was described in a paper published by the DMI in 2017 which centered on the Management and Integration of Design Knowledge for Small Firms. That paper considered the support methods developed by the group using examples from specific projects and from several design support schemes for SME’s who were involved in NPD. The need for management and integration of design knowledge with small firms was stressed as was the need for HEI’s to actively participate in the NPD process in addition to acting as an intermediary with players and actors in the process.

This paper goes beyond the issues of management and integration of design knowledge and considers how HEI’s can effectively integrate vertically with SME’s in the NPD process, forming partnerships that are adaptable and flexible to individual SME characteristics and the associated players in the NPD process. Relationships between private sector organisations and HEI’s are often considered to be horizontal; it is also generally accepted that vertical cooperation with customers and suppliers is more effective in new product development (NPD) for SME’s than horizontal relationships with research institutions and government agencies. This paper builds on the earlier work by presenting evidence from recent case study examples, a large UK funded design support initiative, and international collaborations, and considers in greater depth the processes by which this design research group fosters relationships which create vertical integration with the SME’s.

The role of design-intensive innovation: An exploration on digital innovation of SMEs within a Chinese industry context

Zitong Gao, David Hands

Lancaster University, UK

Digitalisation is re-shaping the world economy. Digital technologies offer new opportunities for start-ups and established of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to participate in the global economy. However, the uptake of digital innovation is uneven, and many SMEs are lagging. The emergent theme of design led innovation is well recognized in contemporary academic research. Yet, the association between design and digital innovation remains largely under-explored. Due to the dynamic characteristics of digital innovation, the role of design is becoming increasingly important and complex. Therefore, there exists a need to further understand how design can influence SMEs’ digital innovation.

China provides an invaluable setting for this study. China’s booming Internet environment provide SMEs with more opportunities and possibilities for digital innovation. However, the most of Chinese SMEs face a certain resource constraint and a backward understanding of design; they need guidance for the practice of digital innovation. This paper serves as a theoretical underpinning for further field research activities and provides an understanding of the concepts, characteristics and requirements of digital innovation. Finally, it critically analyses the intensive role of design in digital innovation.

3:20pm - 3:50pmTrack 5 Session 5


Ian Parkman1, Keven Malkewitz2

1University of Portland, USA; 2Western Oregon University, USA

Despite the increasing attention Design Management has received from academics and practitioners a definitive conceptualization or a widely-agreed upon empirical measure of the construct does not yet exist. This paper proposes a new measurement of Design Management based on the informational elements captured in product design briefs. Exploratory Factor Analysis results suggest that Design Management is made up of eleven clusters: F1 Customer Insights; F2 Business Model; F3 Aesthetics; F4 Authenticity; F5 Symbolic/ Experiential Value; F6 Functional Value; F7 Promotions/ Distribution; F8 Sustainability; F9 Production/ Development; F10 Project Management; F11 Risk/ Safety. Our analysis describes how these factors show differing effects on measures of firm performance at the product project- and competitive advantage-levels (for example, F1, F3, and F9 are strongly and significantly positively related to both sets of measures while F4, F5, and F8 are more important to the competitive advantage of a firm than to any individual product offering). Our findings are organized and discussed using the Balanced Score Card for Design Management tool made up of (1) Customer Perspective (Design as differentiator); (2) Process perspective (Design as coordinator); (3) Learning and Innovation perspective (Design as transformer); and (4) Financial perspective (Design as good business).

Design Principles Analysis: A classification to support decision-making for Design Managers in Companies

Isabella Lopera-Osorio, Maria Cristina Hernández-Monsalve, Santiago Ruiz-Arenas

Universidad EAFIT, Colombia

Design principles constitute a guideline to address design processes and support the evaluation of products and services. They represent an approach that companies can make to apply design, as they contribute to their productivity and effectiveness. Design principles benefit different categories, but since each point of view is independent, they are not understood from a common starting point. This paper focuses on identifying and classifying types of design principles found in the literature, to facilitate their visualization and therefore, their application inside companies. To classify the types of design principles five categories were created based on the concepts of Interaction and Human-centered Design and the levels of Jordan’s model of hierarchy of user needs when interacting with products: Safety and well-being, Usability, and Pleasure. The types of design principles were classified in the five categories according to their descriptions. Within the categories, there were found clusters of common principles that highlight twelve characteristics that should be considered in companies regardless the type of design they apply. This article also provides a visualization map that might facilitate the decision-making process to managers and design leaders, focusing on the research and comparison of the design principles.

3:50pm - 4:05pmDay 4: Afternoon Q&A #2
4:05pm - 4:15pmDay 4 Closing

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