Methodology For The Valuation of Sustainability in Real Estate.
1Universidad de Sonora, Mexico; 2Doctorado en Humanidades
"Methodology for the valuation of sustainability in real Estate"
Sandra Luz Guerrero Martínez/Dra. Irene Marincic Lovriha
Key words: Real Estate. Valuation, Environmental Protection, Sustainability
The implementation of new technologies and systems applied in real estate to improve people's living conditions also represent benefits on various aspects that have a positive impact on the reduction of energy consumption, savings on consumption expenditure and the impact on quality and improvement of the environment. The issue of sustainability and the application of the rules of the new urban agenda on real estate, makes it necessary to include in the methodologies established for the valuation of real estate these indicators that represent an added value on the property, for this reason a proposal is presented for establish sustainability indicators that can be incorporated into the methodologies used and, in turn, present us with parameters that benefit both the user of the real estate and the environment in general.
The objective of this topic is to present a proposal for the real estate valuation methodology, which considers the sustainable aspects of the asset to be valued, and includes the following environmental variables in this analysis: energy efficiency; use efficiency of water and arborization, these variables are analyzed and the following data is proposed as expected results: Cost - benefit of the investment; reduction of CO2 emissions; reduction of heat gain in spaces and finally applied as a sustainability factor that affects the final value of the real estate, obtained by traditional methods.
Spatial Improvisation Exercises for Architects
Florida International University, United States of America
Part of the preparation for dramatic acting is a series of improvisation exercises that help actors hone their skills. Might architects engage in parallel exercises that explore the performantive potential of built elements? In classes at Florida International University School of Architecture I developed a series of exercises that invite young architects to consider built spaces as what Bruno Latour calls “non-human” actors:
- In large classes, student teams do a short exercise, analyzing our school of architecture building to find places of dramatic potential, which they interpret in 10-second scenes and draw in storyboard, plan and section.
- In design studio students in pairs constructed a third actor to participate with them in a performance that addressed one of architecture’s fundamental social qualities.
- In a weeklong workshop in Genoa, Italy students made short videos that combined scenes with drawings to explore the inherent drama of fundamental elements of architecture – door, wall, steps.
All of these exercises investigate interactions between built spaces and people, who, in their movements, interpret these spaces for their own purposes in the course of daily life.
Informal Health Access in Liminal Space
Temple University, United States of America
According to the COVID-19 Hospitalization Tracking, provided in the Analysis of HHS data by the University of Minnesota Hospitalization Tracking Project, the most extreme urban and rural hospitals reported overcrowded ICU beds upwards of 75% capacity in 2020. With the continued surge in medical care and, in particular, the long-term intubation of patients, space for procedures comes at a premium. Concurrently, per the American Hospital Association, the expense per capita in the hospital is approximately $4500 per patient, and considering that in these conditions, patients are primarily confined to a bed in a shared environment, the cost for recovery in these spaces is over-extended past the cost typically associated with particular types of care.
The investigation into utilizing liminal spaces in Medical Facilities to support care involves determining whether ambulatory care support in corridor space can relieve the strain of overcrowding inpatient areas. By definition, liminal space is inactive or underutilized space. However, in hospitals and medical facilities, they incorporate everything from support spaces to patient wards. In determining the feasibility of transitioning support for ambulatory patient care from egress paths to into temporary patient service zones, the work of this research interrogates lighting techniques, screening techniques, and material identification to subtly inform persons in these conditions as to places in use and bring attention to changing needs for maintaining safe distances from others. The resolute inquiries consider the behavioral, biological, and bodily requirements for patient recovery guided by intentionally maintaining medical integrity's physical closeness.
Human-Robot Interactive Synergy (HRIS)
Kent State University, United States of America
Human-Robot Interactive Synergy (HRIS)
Using industrial robots in projects other than fabrication and mass production has attracted wide range of attention among architects and designers. These machines have become a means for creative study in design and architecture, and there has been a lot of research in this field in academia and practice. From the book Robot House (Testa, 2017) by Peter Testa containing projects to use robots for representing artistic outcomes to the creative robotic studio of Bot & Dolly, the researchers have tried to propose nonconventional use of the robots in design disciplines. However, these developments are still in their initial steps and need more exploration by researchers in different design-related categories.
HRIS is a project-based research that aims at taking a deeper look into the robotics opportunities in creative design through a drawing experiment and creating a platform where human and robot can work together interactively. It enables real-time interaction with the robot arm through human inputs and a custom-made end effector. This experiment shows how interactive collaboration has progressed and what the restrictions and possibilities of the robot are considering the design criteria. This project gives this opportunity to recognize different aspects of this interactive process. Using the idea of bridging the physical and digital gap, this project-based research is an investigation on using robot as a collaborative and creative design tool.
In this project, the human-robot collaboration interface is designed based on a hand-drawn input by the human user. The image recognition process through the implemented camera, the data processing in the computer and the robot feedback are the processes through which this real-time interaction becomes possible. The Scorpion (Elashry & Glynn, 2014) Plugin in Grasshopper provides the necessary tools for controlling the Universal robots and acts as the bridge between Grasshopper, a visual programming language that runs within the Rhinoceros 3D application, and the physical robot. Understanding how the raw data can be transmitted to the computer through vision and sensor feedback, how it can be processed, and finally sent back to the robot are the critical parts of this experiment.
This research demonstrates how the robot can actively respond to human movement in real-time and how this feedback can be systemized and programmed in a third machine to follow a particular procedure. This platform exemplifies a hybrid collaboration in which the communication between human and robot enhances the robotic capabilities and the computational control into the process. Questioning the potentials of using robot in creative design, HRIS provides the opportunity for users to interact with robot and participate in a production workflow without having expertise or background in the robot-related software.
Keywords: robotics, design, human-robot interaction, user interface, human-machine interaction
Elashry, K. and Glynn, R., 2014. An approach to automated construction using adaptive programing. In Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2014 (pp. 51-66). Springer, Cham
Testa, P. 2017. “Imaging,” in Robot House, edited by P. Testa, New York, NY: Thames & Hudson Inc., 155-219.
Classification of Natural Plant Physiology, Behavior, and Morphology to Inform an Adaptive Architecture
1University of Arizona, United States of America; 2University of Arizona, United States of America
In the context of the 21st century, which identifies anthropocentricism as a dominant reason for environmental impacts, a consensus is emerging for thinking critically about adaptation and developing necessary actions in response to emerging socio-ecological realities. Continuous processes of urbanization are constantly impacting natural environments, which are deeply interrelated with the aggravation of cumulative environmental, economic, and social problems. This combination results in a profound ecosystem crisis, including climate change, at the epicenter of which are cities and, inevitably, architecture. The natural and urban environments are undergoing a systemic change driven primarily by the evolving processes in culture, science, industry, and commerce. As a result, the architecture discipline seeks to overcome its own preconceptions and adapt to these enhanced understandings of ecological relationships. Therefore, early research in this work focuses on developing a classification of the meanings of responsiveness, as a mode of adaptation, at different scales.
There is a growing cultural fascination with new knowledge of nature’s science and of natural forms, both living and non-living. Design based on the integration of nature’s science and architecture seems a practical and environmentally friendly strategy for designers in this era. As architecture allows us to create environments in which we can flourish, there is no better place than the natural world for inspiration. Therefore, different plant systems are investigated through a comparative and woven framework of intersecting regional challenges. The materials and the natural systems of adaptation that emerge through identification of prevalent regional opportunities impacting multiple aspects of a society could provide implications for local design and construction methods.
The adaptation system of these plants is established through three main characteristics: physiological, behavioral, and morphological. Each of these characteristics are a function of dynamic systems as expressed by visible and non-visible change. In this research different features of pine conifer, wheat, and ice plants that can fold and unfold are studied and classified in behavioral groups based on changes in their physical characteristics at different scales in response to humidity. Other examples include mangrove plants that physiologically filter water-borne pollutants, and desert cacti that develop specific morphologies (such as ridges, bristles, and spines) and shallow root systems to adapt to harsh climate conditions.
The evaluation of these natural systems for commonalities and differences through methodical and rigorous comparison of their flows and compositions reveals that adaptive systems have a strong relationship with context. Similar systems in varying contexts have different performance characteristics and different ways of responding because of the complex set of parameters within the context of evolutionary design. These adaptative systems in nature respond to a complex challenge, showing inherent traits that allow for adaptation to climate change, indicating that both material selection and design strategies need to be based on the specific ecological realities of a given context.
Key words: adaptation, ecology, natural systems, materials, responsive architecture
Building a Morphology in the Historical Data of Urban Things
South Dakota State University, United States of America
As a formally trained urban designer, encountering Geographic Information System (GIS) and its derivative graphic images have been a siren call. There is something absolutely real about it. GIS is the technology of our time that makes you think that Borges’ fantastical concept of a full scale (realistic) map of a place just might be possible. There is always something contemporary that makes us think we can prove Borges wrong. In GIS, rather than thinking we’d need to unfold it to it full extents, we are caught in a cycle of wishing that we could just get that last dataset. There is always one more constellation of datasets that may reprove the contemporeinity of the medium. Reality would come to life if only we could get a sense of what each household makes relative to its property value—or some such corporate-consumer fantasy. It seems so contemporary and “new”.
What GIS makes is alluringly, factual, real-time, and databased. The shapes and surfaces it generates are the calculated presence of clickable geocoded data whose values are available in a guided process of interactive query that divines graphical images of a range of surfaces neatly adjacent to each other. The bounds of the surfaces are not really borders; they are the linear inflection points between two types, values, chronologies, or qualities of category. They are not the spatial border between two places, just its mean.
An urban designer is intrinsically tied to the geometry of land and the shape of the spaces generated by its parcelization according to a variety of bona fide and fiat factors; GIS presents an interesting dilemma. GIS is graphical just as we are. It is mapped onto a terrestrial model. Yet, in its engine, it is not essentially geometric. It is geographic—location by its mean and its center. Geometry and geography are functionally different but their datatypes in GIS are seemingly the same. It doesn’t take much to be confused but we’d offer this: The geometric projections of urban design require a database defined and measured by a clear sense of its borders and boundaries not its centers and gradients.
A comparative study of Brookings, SD and New Ulm, MN is where we discovered some necessary translations and practices of GIS graphics to urban design geometries. In this presentation we review how we aggregated varied datasets and built a discernible practice in how translate the graphical representations of GIS into the geometries from which we build. This practice of connecting thick datasets to carefully delineated graphical traces make a physical yet phenomenal narrative of urban things. It presents space in the city as both formal and motive. It juxtaposes and conventionalizes new combinatory shapes of time, value, and volume.