Bangladeshi Immigrant Muslim Women’s Memories of Past Homes and Their Ways of Knowing Spaces: New York City Case Study
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States of America
My research project examines complex identities of Muslim immigrant women from Bangladesh with special attention to the social and spatial dimensions of human displacement and the reconstruction of memories in domestic landscapes. This research takes a humanistic approach to the relationship between the built environment and human experience, focusing on everyday placemaking in New York City, U.S.A., as a framework for place-based examinations of diaspora and gender identities.
The women at the center of this research immigrated to the United States from Bangladesh at different periods for the sake of study, work, and family life. Their current way of perceiving and creating places significantly reflects on their past place memories from Bangladesh. This research explores how the participant women’s diasporic memories of past homes in Bangladesh serve as mnemonic devices that record and transmit their place memories at their resettled homes in New York. This research also explores their everyday placemaking inside their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its effect on their wellbeing. Among the research methods I use are in-depth interviews, participant observation, concept mapping, and photo-elicitation in order to extract the participant’s narratives about their everyday use of home spaces. In this process, this study focuses on what one remembers from their previous spaces while relying on the spatial elements that store these memories. In this research, I also seek to examine the social, cultural, and geographical barriers these women face in gaining access to resources to maintain their everyday wellbeing, and how they create agency in spatial and material ways in order to overcome these constrictions. The major objective of this research is to gain insight into the lived experiences of the Bangladeshi immigrant women inside their resettled home spaces in New York City.
After the Whitney: Temporality and Identity in the Space of the Museum
University of Virginia School of Architecture, United States of America
Since its formalization as a museum in New York City in 1930, the Whitney Museum of American Art’s mission has been dedicated to the institutionalization of works by living, American artists. While the Whitney’s prioritization of “the contemporary” and the concerns of national and individual identity have acted as guiding principles, these mutable concepts have evolved significantly over the course of the 20th century. The Whitney’s unconventional approach to its mission and practices has frequently found the museum both at the center of controversy and overshadowed by peer institutions. Subsequently, this has caused the Whitney to be overlooked as a critical contributor to the emergence of the contemporary art museum as a significant institutional typology in the last 100 years. In addition, the perception of the Whitney as an outsider institution has at times shielded the museum from accountability for its role in the formation of the dominant narrative of American Art history, one based in gendered and racialized exclusivity. This crisis of instability has manifested itself most visibly through the relationship between the Whitney and its architecture. While it is common for museums to expand their architectural footprints, the Whitney has gone so far as to relocate multiple times, abandoning significant architecture, and leaving fragments of its spatialized history across Manhattan. This research will explore the questions raised by the Whitney’s repeated spatial reconfigurations and will draw connections between the various spatial incarnations of the Whitney and the changing ethos of contemporality and Americanness in the 20th and 21st centuries asking: how has the Whitney been a place and space of “the contemporary” in its nearly 100 year history? and what role has the Whitney’s architectural presence played in representing the shifting socio-political ideologies bounding perceptions of national identity?
This dissertation will be structured around the key moments of change in the Whitney’s history, tracing the evolving trajectory of the contemporary and “Americaness” through the spaces of the museum. Institutional documents, architectural representations, records related to key exhibitionary events, and the Whitney’s architecture itself will be considered among the primary materials of interpretation in this research. By entering an analysis of the Whitney through the museum’s various spatial modalities in conjunction with the museum’s own historically constructed practices, this work will situate the Whitney within larger frameworks of knowledge regarding the museum’s symbolic and practical functions. This research depends on the specificity of the Whitney within its urban context of New York City while also acknowledging the museum’s role in the larger art world within which it operates. The Whitney’s architecture has rarely been a subject of its own institutional introspection or explicitly tied to an intentionality of its practices supporting or hindering the institutional mission to exhibit the works of living, American artists. More broadly, it is rare for spatial interpretation to be prioritized in the context of museum scholarship, and as such, grounding this dissertation within the constructed environment of this institution represents the contribution of new knowledge to the fields of museology and architectural history/theory.
Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM): Methods for BIM-Based Energy Performance Simulations
UMASS Amherst, United States of America
Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides a data-rich digital representation of the building with integrated data necessary for all stakeholders involved in the project. Building Energy Modeling (BEM) is a powerful and beneficial process that captures buildings’ energy and environmental performances, using computer modeling and simulation techniques. A novel approach to simulate and analyze the energy performance of buildings, named BIM-based BEM, has emerged in recent years, aiming to lessen human intervention and subjective decisions incorporated in the conventional analysis process.
BIM-based BEM includes integrated, interoperable, and separated workflows. Integration implies the same application environment for both BIM and BEM models. Interoperability allows BIM and BEM to communicate and exchange data, using a common data structure. In separation, there is no direct path of communication between BIM and BEM, requiring building geometry to be re-modeled in BEM. Literature reveals that there is a lot of energy analysis tools, working with different calculation engines and graphical user interfaces. However, none of the existing literature compared simulated energy data of various analysis tools against the actual energy consumption of existing buildings. This is an essential step for improving BIM-based BEM, aiming to reduce the time and labor intensity of the simulation and analysis processes.
In this study, research methodologies include data collection (i.e., construction documents, specifications, and energy data), weather-normalization of the energy data, architectural and analysis modeling, simulations, and comparative analysis of the results. Several existing buildings, all located at the [university campus removed for the blind peer review], were adopted as case studies. The buildings were selected from various categories, including laboratory, library, administrative, and recreational buildings, aiming to expand the study over a variety of building typologies.
For the purpose of whole-building energy analysis, seven BEM tools, including three categories of BIM-integrated (GBS, Sefaira), BIM-interoperable (IDA ICE and IES VE), and BIM-separated (DesingBuilder and eQUEST) software programs will be investigated. The selected BEM tools will be evaluated to determine their capabilities of defining simulations’ inputs and outputs and their applicability throughout a building’s lifecycle (i.e., design, construction, and operation/maintenance). Simulations’ results will be used to develop a guideline in the selection of BEM tools, considering the specific purpose of the simulations throughout a building life cycle. Three different data sharing file formats (IFC, gbXML, and DXF) will be tested and evaluated. These information sharing mechanisms will be applied to all the simulations to determine the best data exchange method and to suggest what is missing for streamlined interoperability. Simulations results will be then compared against the actual energy consumption data, investigating the accuracy of the BEM tools in predicting energy data.
The ARCC Doctoral Student Workshop will provide helpful feedback on how to further develop this research study, and how to develop guidelines for researchers and professionals interested in implementing BIM-based BEM.