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A: Paper Session_T1: Facade Performance, Research Methods and Models
9:45am - 11:15am
Panel Moderator: Terri Boake
A Time Efficient Design Method For A Kinetic Façade Using A Regression Model
Ok-Kyun Im, Kyounghee Kim
UNC Charlotte, United States of America
The extensive use of glass is common in office towers due to its benefits from daylighting, view-outs, and contemporary aesthetics in urban settings. The building sector is among the largest consumers of energy and non-renewable resources. With current climate emergency and advances in technology around architecture, kinetic facade systems that are adaptable to environments and control microclimates is generating considerable interest. Finding an optimal operation of kinetic facades during early design process will improve energy consumption and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study therefore is to develop a time efficient design methodology that helps determine the optimum operation of kinetic facades. For this study, a kinetic shading system with circular units that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the sun’s movement was developed. Solar radiation data simulated in Diva (a daylighting and energy simulation tool) was used to investigate varying degrees of regression models as a time efficient tool to find optimal operations of kinetic facades. The results of the study shows that the developed regression model shows different predictive results depending on time and season which is closely related to the altitude of the sun. When the sun's altitude is high, solar radiation can be blocked well by the kinetic system, so the amount of blocked solar radiation according to the rotation angle increases, which leads to the accuracy of the regression model. On the other hand, when the sun's altitude is low or the amount of solar radiation is relatively low compared to other times, the accuracy of the regression model is reduced because the difference in performance according to the rotational angle is not large. Incorporating a regression model during kinetic façade design process could make the design process more time efficient without undergoing repetitive simulation process. It is also expected to further help multi-functionalities of kinetic facades with improved energy efficiency and occupant comfort.
Facade Performance Study of a Historically Significant Brutalist Building: Thermal and Moisture Analysis
Suncica Milosevic1, Ajla Aksamija2
1University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States of America; 2University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States of America
Preservation of historically significant buildings is essential to sustaining cultural heritage and history, but current preservation processes for such structures do not require stringent energy performance criteria. As a result, little research has been done on quantifiable methods for sustainable historic preservation, while striving to maintain the building’s original design integrity. This paper presents a case study on facade performance for Spomen Dom (translating to “Remembrance Home”), a Brutalist civic building located in Montenegro, once part of the former Yugoslavia. This research was conducted to determine and analyze the building’s original design features, to assess the building’s current physical state and to investigate thermal/moisture performance of the building skin. The purpose was to evaluate building’s current performance compared to original design intent, and to propose renovation strategies that would improve the building’s performance, while striving to maintain the integrity of original design of the exterior enclosure. Though a single case study, methodology presented here can be widely applied to analyze performance and encourage sustainable retrofitting of historically significant buildings.
Building Enclosure and its Outdoor Thermal Behaviour: Insitu Measurement Efficacy
Patricia Njideka Kio, Ahmed Kamal Ali
Texas A&M University, United States of America
Combining two systems; living walls and double envelopes for building’s enclosures are introduced to achieve energy conservation benefits and provide aesthetics in urban areas. Many studies tackled the effects of double walls on reducing energy and heat gain on buildings, but very few measured the effects of these enclosures on the urban microclimate. This paper demonstrates a methodological workflow for assessing the thermal performance of a novel living wall. Measurements were carried out at 16:00 hours for 31 days in August during Summer 2019 and at 14:00 hours for 44 days during Summer 2020. Meteorological conditions measured by a weather station in the same surrounding microclimate for August 2019 were considered as a reference for the thermal performance in the microclimate analysis. In 2020, irradiance was measured at surfaces in situ for microclimate analysis and their sky view factors were obtained to standardize exposure to the sun. Irradiance at surfaces showed differences in thermal performance and effectiveness of the geometry of modular living wall units/modules. Maximum irradiance of 595.3 W/m2 occurred at the metal door. Average temperatures of the flat surface of the modules and flat metal door show that cooling effect improved from 4.6 ºC in 2019 to 8.4 ºC in 2020. Results of paired T-tests between both metal surfaces provided evidence of the effectiveness of module geometry on its irradiance. Thermal values were found to likely increase after applying sky view factor for similar conditions of sunlight at facades. This comparative analysis of the experimental results on a living/double wall and surfaces demonstrates the thermal behavior of a novel modular living/double wall and its potential to mitigate urban heat island in the surrounding microclimate.