The Design and Fabrication of Façade Panel Systems with Additive Manufacturing
Lousiana State University, United States of America
The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of additive digital fabrication techniques for customized repetitive manufacturing (CRM) as they apply to the design and fabrication of molds for precast concrete panels. These digital fabrication methods are distributed enough that they are accessible, and the elements produced through these methods can have geometrical freedom compared to those produced through traditional methods.
Volumetric concrete panels are the focal point of this study. These panels have been advancing in their design, but the general fabrication methods in practice have not been catching up with this advancement. Producing concrete panels by employing traditional mold making methods restricts the geometric possibilities of their design, while it also limits the involvement of a designer in prototyping and fabricating panels. This study proposes 3D printing molds as an alternative fabrication method for creating precast building elements.
After completing a review of precast paneling systems in over forty case studies, the design and fabrication techniques employed in each project were interrogated. Next, two case studies, namely Le Vérone Tower and The Perot Museum of Nature and Science were studied in depth. The issues of controlled variability by using 3D printed molds were tested through pushing the design aesthetics of these projects. Stereolithography (SLA) resin printing was the key process employed for recreating these panels. Considering both the available and upcoming large scale 3D printers in the industry, the results demonstrate 3D printing molds as a viable fabrication method for creating CRM parts for building construction.
Other Ways to Pay for the Public Life?
University of California Davis, United States of America
Kresge College at the University of California Santa Cruz, originally designed in 1971 by Turnbull Associates and Charles W Moore Associates (MLTW), is well known both for its “stage set” like architecture as well as its use of environmental graphics. These graphics were designed to foster a sense of democracy and public participation. As part of a renovation and expansion led by Studio Gang Architects, we (the authors) contributed an updated wayfinding system that builds on the idea of participation while broadening it to include inhabitants’ relationship with the built and natural environment. While the original design centered on an inward facing street, the renewal connects outwards acting as a lens to the environment. The graphic strategy includes integrating graphics into materials (using bird-safe etched glass), highlighting the complex topography of the site (through large scale maps), and includes an augmented reality component allowing visitors added ways of connecting to the site (as well as the ability to see the current and original site overlaid).
Augmented reality will allow users to access various social and ecological components of the College, from being able to see more about the multi-species that are native to this environment as well as to access historical information about the original MLTW buildings. By actively creating linkages between past and present, built and natural, this wayfinding system aims to highlight the way we actively participate in shaping our environment.
Development of Window Apertures to Improve Natural Ventilation in Educational Buildings
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America
The recent global pandemic has left bare the flaws in our infrastructure as much as in buildings. With schools re-opening, concerns for the safety and health of children have come to the forefront, as has the glaring inadequacies in air circulation in school buildings. Current practice of designing small openable window areas in educational buildings, allowing windows to open only 4-6 inches for children’s safety, along with the use of old radiators and window-mounted air-conditioning units, have rendered classrooms devoid of adequate supply of fresh air. Absence of the ASHRAE recommended 6 air changes/per hour (ACH) in many poorly funded classrooms can potentially lead to serious consequence. The Epidemic Task Force for ASHRAE has proposed some guidelines for the reopening of schools, stressing adequate supply of outside fresh air according to ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2019.
This research aims to investigate design strategies to improve air circulation through careful interventions in conventional apertures in classrooms. With clever design, airflow through existing window apertures can be augmented to maximize natural ventilation that can reduce risk of contamination by insufficient fresh air. The research aims to create a framework of design strategies that would enable an increased ventilation in a space under different wind conditions.
The learning objectives of the study are to investigate the current aperture design, understand the different conditions impacting indoor air movement through apertures, propose alternative systems based on various wind conditions, and finally test the systems through CFD analysis to validate their robustness.
Exploring Changes in Needs for Students Housing after the Pandemic
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States of America
This study explores the direction of new student housing design as students’ lifestyle changes caused by COVID-19. This study confirmed the possibility of conducting research on a new student housing development direction by reviewing a set of literature: industry trends, evidence-based design, and Post-Occupancy Evaluation on student housing.
Based on the phenomenological perspective with the combination of lived experience and POE methodologies, this research questions what changes in students’ needs for housing are after the coronavirus outbreak. This study collected data by recording the life before and after the pandemic with multiple materials according to the POE format. The collected data was analyzed by following discussion and semi-constructed interviews together. Through the analysis, this research identified changes in students’ needs and issues compared with the student housing trend 2020.
As a result, this study illustrates a set of changes in needs for students housing during the COVID-19. According to the findings, research participants need more 1) flexibility in layout, 2) private space and amenities, 3) solutions for noise issues, and 4) better delivery access. Even though it is difficult to generalize according to the limited number of study participants, the quality of this study was supplemented through multiple materials, peer-reviewed analysis, and additional interviews and discussions. Consequently, this study can be referred to when universities develop new on-campus housing or when private developers plan off-campus housing. In addition, it is reference material for student housing design projects in the architectural design studio, followed by pre-design research and evidence-based design.
Public Policies For Sustainable Social Housing In Northwest Mexico
Maestria en Arquitectura, Universidad de Sonora
In Mexico, sustainable housing policies are proposed as an alternative to improve the quality of life of the vulnerable population and at the same time, correct the housing deficit that exists in this country due, in part, to the lack of efficient regulations for the management of the growth of cities. It is expected that by 2030, Mexico will have approximately 50 million homes and to meet their needs, it will be necessary to build almost 11 million new homes between 2011 and 2030.
However, the country's sustainable housing policies have not been a significant factor in the change towards sustainability. In contrast, they are closer to a rhetorical discourse, which remains in the passive design and use of certain technologies without considering the needs, aspirations, and conditions of accessibility for all economic strata. On the contrary, other authors point out that the programs have little time for implementation; therefore, there are no precise evaluable results, making their analysis difficult when trying to determine the strengths and weaknesses.
This research aims to compare sustainable housing programs such as "Hipoteca Verde", "Esta es tu casa" and "Sisevive-Ecocasa" implemented in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, in order to identify the quantifiable and non-quantifiable benefits to users. In addition to analyzing the tools and parameters that make them up. During the analysis of the programs, we found that "Sisevive-Ecocasa" is based on the programs "Hipoteca Verde" and "Esta es tu casa". However, unlike these, "Sisevive-Ecocasa" addresses the construction's energy efficiency based on the house's global performance, setting standards for the total energy demand, according to the prototype and the bioclimatic zone; this approach implements monitoring, reporting, and verification system for each house.
Performative Nomadicism and the No-Place
University of Waterloo, Canada
As fears of COVID-19 rose in early 2020 calls for self-isolation shifted life into the domestic realm and streets of cities around the world emptied of people. This migration into the home continues to invert the function of ‘public’ space intrapandemic, redefining them through either eerie vacancy or movement between. This project examines the no-place which counters Marc Augé’s non-place as a space of detached transience, instead locating this transience within the person encountering space. It is a distinctly nomadic theory which builds off of the work of Gilles Deleuze and Rosi Braidotti, noting an embodied sense of detachment either to place or to community as a mode of subjectivity. This subjectivity grounds the no-place perspective in a revised posthuman subject, one who is us as we contemporaneously occupy and perform as part of a diaspora, as bystanders, or as passing strangers. Employing performance art as a methodology, this project is assembled as a series of images situated within the pandemic-city. A set of eight movements carry a masked performer between streets, shops, alleyways, and parks where she lingers. Forms of transience are not only performed by the city intrapandemic, but also realized by her inhabitation of these spaces which assemble disparate fragments of her childhood memory and identity as a multiracial woman and the child of immigrants. Blips of Chinatown bookmark this exploration of the no-place, and here this detached transience becomes a place for the radical transformation of the individual within larger narratives of anonymity, identification, and inhabitation.