Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 28th Nov 2021, 12:31:30pm PST

Session Overview
Date: Thursday, 08/Apr/2021
8:00am - 9:30amKeynote: Eyal Weizman_CLOUD STUDIES
Session Chair: Beth Weinstein
Session Chair: Laura Holden Hollengreen

Eyal Weizman is Professor of Spatial and Visual Cultures and founding director of the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London. In 2010, Weizman founded the research agency Forensic Architecture, documented in FORENSIS (Sternberg, 2014) and Forensic Architecture: Violence at the Threshold of Detectability (Zone/MIT, 2017). 

Tear gas is used to disperse bodies gathering in democratic protest, white phosphorus and chlorine gas are used to spread terror in cities, herbicide is sprayed from airplanes to destroy fields and displace those whose livelihood depends on them, arson is used to eradicate forests for industrial plantations. Mobilized by state and corporate powers, toxic clouds colonize the air we breathe across different scales and durations, from urban squares to continents and from incidents to epochal latencies.

Studying such contemporary clouds necessitate a different approach to the analysis of kinetic encounters where “every contact leaves a trace”. Clouds are the epitome of transformations and their dynamics are elusive, governed by nonlinear and multi-causal logics. This is a problem that originated throughout the history of painting, when clouds were moving faster than the painter’s brush could capture them. and sometimes needed to be conceived rather than described.

Indeed, today’s toxic fog breeds lethal doubt and cloud shifts once more from the physical to the epistemological. When naysayers operate across the spectrum to deny the facts of climate change just as they do of chemical strikes, those inhabiting the clouds must find new ways of resistance.

9:30am - 9:45amBreak

Network with a cup of 'home-made' Coffee!

Thematic Paper Session Tracks > C: Cultural  / O: Organizational / T: Technological

9:45am - 11:15amA: Paper Session_C1: Meaning, Memory and Place
Panel Moderator: Rima Ajlouni

Sacrality, Space + Self: Critical Explorations of Meaning, Relationship + Resonance in Islamic Architecture

Nooshin Esmaeili1, Dr. Brian R. Sinclair2

1School of Architecture, Planning + Landscape, University of Calgary, Alberta; 2School of Architecture, Planning + Landscape, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, + sinclairstudio inc., Alberta, Canada

Architecture is not only about creating spaces but more importantly addresses the quality of place and users' experience. With certain intentions, the architect deploys form and choreographs the movement through space, harnessing various elements collectively to tell a story. However, the message is conveyed to the users successfully only when the senses are simultaneously addressed, and a relationship is created between the individual and the environment. This results in blending one’s internal space with the experience of the world beyond, identified as “quality” (Zumthor 2006) or “life-enhancing” (Pallasmaa 2012) architecture. In this paper, the authors are particularly curious about the spiritual experience of Islamic architecture. Their research acknowledges the distinction between spirituality and religiosity, underscoring that transcendental qualities in space can be grasped by all people regardless of beliefs. The goal is not to say that all spaces are equal and that all buildings should provide an enhanced spiritual experience, but to examine those that have the requisite qualities so that designers can seek a better understanding of the concept of ‘quality’ space. To do so, this research serves to identify key criteria necessary in the exploration of spirituality as well as uncovering the importance of meaning, relationship, and resonance, more specifically, in Islamic architecture -- together creating a transcendental encounter. Architecture is more than seeing. Transformative places can be felt with the heart and spaces can be experienced without sight. Sacred spaces in Islamic architecture are often intended to detach us from our materialistic lifestyle and unite us with our genuine internal state. Transcendental spaces aim to lift us into a realm beyond our logical mind (perceptual) to the inner space of the soul or the numinous place (Otto 1970). This special feeling or spark is universal and not solely limited to sacred architecture. The present paper explores a developed set of criteria by the authors and their importance in delivering a transcendental architecture. For the second part of this research, which lies beyond the scope of this paper, the research examines the application of the developed criteria in various high profile case studies for understanding the art of orchestrating architectural features and elements in delivering the notion of “flow” and “unity” in Islamic architecture through the lens of Sufism. This research interrogates the status-quo through a literature review and considers several well-known case studies known for their transformative qualities and a heightened sense of place. The research, in a larger sense, evokes logical argumentation to develop a conceptual framework including initial design parameters/guidelines, targeted to begin the journey of developing a conceptual framework including initial design parameters/guidelines, targeted to designers and architects aspiring to elevate their design potency and spatial mastery to reach transcendental and performative ends. The authors seek a balance between provocation/speculation and rigor/discipline along with the identification of connections between several vital elements – sacrality, self, space, and wellbeing. In this paper, the authors conclude that many of the illuminations and recommendations revealed through this research find applicability in religious and spiritual traditions beyond the confines of Islam.

Qal'at Sim'an, A New Venue of Power in Late Antique Syria

Laura Holden Hollengreen

University of Arizona, United States of America

One way in which architecture “performs” is by providing a site for socio-cultural mediation among peoples with diverse needs. A pertinent premodern example, from a disintegrating empire, is the fifth-century Monastery of Qal’at Sim’an in Syria. At this site, Simeon the Elder, a stylite saint, practiced his asceticism atop a tall column for almost 40 years. Afterwards, a martyrium was built around his column in order to commemorate him; an adjacent monastery housed pilgrims who visited the church, as well as those who ministered to them. This paper will explore the initial, private ascetic performance of Simeon’s body; then the column as architectural prop for his practice, creating an elevated site visible to others; and finally the monumental architecture intended to graft Simeon’s individual fame into the power exercised by the Eastern Orthodox Church as an institution.

Simeon’s church provided a permanent focal point for the circulation of local peoples and distant travelers. It forged a perfect memorial to the holy dead and is regarded as one of the most significant works of late Roman architecture. Indeed, its elegant composition foreshadowed the integration of formal types at Hagia Sophia and the construction was so fine that scholars have assumed imperial patronage. Together, the site, the column, and the building design crystallized socio-political and religious change. They performed culturally for Simeon and later church officials by making visible the dynamic opportunities when long-standing institutions and social hierarchies break down and new people emerge to formulate new methods for achieving peace and prosperity. Dispensing exhortations and miracles, Simeon wielded considerable authority from atop his column and, later, after death, from his church, eclipsing that of local pagan gods and magistrates alike.

Bangladeshi Immigrant Muslim Women’s Memories from Past-lived Homes: Their Ways of Knowing Spaces

Mania Tahsina Taher

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States of America

This research inquires about the construction of spatial memories for Bangladeshi Muslim immigrant women living in the U.S. cities and analyzes their physical and sensorial ways of reconstructing the memories of past-lived spaces. The three participant women in this research immigrated to the United States at different times for study, work, and raising a family. This research reflects on how these memories serve as mnemonic devices that record and transmit their experiences inside their previous homes. The objective of this research is two-fold: first, to gain insight into the lived experiences of these immigrant women inside their homes; second, to assess the efficacy of the research methods used here to receive reflections on their occupied built environments. Interview and photo-elicitation are the two research methods adopted here to extract their narratives about everyday spaces. In this process, this study focuses on what one remembers in space, and how one remembers relying on these spatial elements that store these memories. This research framework testifies to the role of data collection techniques in qualitative research for analyzing the relationship of people’s placemaking and their spatial recall of past-lived places.

9:45am - 11:15amA: Paper Session_T1: Facade Performance, Research Methods and Models
Panel Moderator: Terri Boake

A Time Efficient Design Method For A Kinetic Façade Using A Regression Model

Ok-Kyun Im, Kyounghee Kim

UNC Charlotte, United States of America

The extensive use of glass is common in office towers due to its benefits from daylighting, view-outs, and contemporary aesthetics in urban settings. The building sector is among the largest consumers of energy and non-renewable resources. With current climate emergency and advances in technology around architecture, kinetic facade systems that are adaptable to environments and control microclimates is generating considerable interest. Finding an optimal operation of kinetic facades during early design process will improve energy consumption and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study therefore is to develop a time efficient design methodology that helps determine the optimum operation of kinetic facades. For this study, a kinetic shading system with circular units that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the sun’s movement was developed. Solar radiation data simulated in Diva (a daylighting and energy simulation tool) was used to investigate varying degrees of regression models as a time efficient tool to find optimal operations of kinetic facades. The results of the study shows that the developed regression model shows different predictive results depending on time and season which is closely related to the altitude of the sun. When the sun's altitude is high, solar radiation can be blocked well by the kinetic system, so the amount of blocked solar radiation according to the rotation angle increases, which leads to the accuracy of the regression model. On the other hand, when the sun's altitude is low or the amount of solar radiation is relatively low compared to other times, the accuracy of the regression model is reduced because the difference in performance according to the rotational angle is not large. Incorporating a regression model during kinetic façade design process could make the design process more time efficient without undergoing repetitive simulation process. It is also expected to further help multi-functionalities of kinetic facades with improved energy efficiency and occupant comfort.

Facade Performance Study of a Historically Significant Brutalist Building: Thermal and Moisture Analysis

Suncica Milosevic1, Ajla Aksamija2

1University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States of America; 2University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States of America

Preservation of historically significant buildings is essential to sustaining cultural heritage and history, but current preservation processes for such structures do not require stringent energy performance criteria. As a result, little research has been done on quantifiable methods for sustainable historic preservation, while striving to maintain the building’s original design integrity. This paper presents a case study on facade performance for Spomen Dom (translating to “Remembrance Home”), a Brutalist civic building located in Montenegro, once part of the former Yugoslavia. This research was conducted to determine and analyze the building’s original design features, to assess the building’s current physical state and to investigate thermal/moisture performance of the building skin. The purpose was to evaluate building’s current performance compared to original design intent, and to propose renovation strategies that would improve the building’s performance, while striving to maintain the integrity of original design of the exterior enclosure. Though a single case study, methodology presented here can be widely applied to analyze performance and encourage sustainable retrofitting of historically significant buildings.

Building Enclosure and its Outdoor Thermal Behaviour: Insitu Measurement Efficacy

Patricia Njideka Kio, Ahmed Kamal Ali

Texas A&M University, United States of America

Combining two systems; living walls and double envelopes for building’s enclosures are introduced to achieve energy conservation benefits and provide aesthetics in urban areas. Many studies tackled the effects of double walls on reducing energy and heat gain on buildings, but very few measured the effects of these enclosures on the urban microclimate. This paper demonstrates a methodological workflow for assessing the thermal performance of a novel living wall. Measurements were carried out at 16:00 hours for 31 days in August during Summer 2019 and at 14:00 hours for 44 days during Summer 2020. Meteorological conditions measured by a weather station in the same surrounding microclimate for August 2019 were considered as a reference for the thermal performance in the microclimate analysis. In 2020, irradiance was measured at surfaces in situ for microclimate analysis and their sky view factors were obtained to standardize exposure to the sun. Irradiance at surfaces showed differences in thermal performance and effectiveness of the geometry of modular living wall units/modules. Maximum irradiance of 595.3 W/m2 occurred at the metal door. Average temperatures of the flat surface of the modules and flat metal door show that cooling effect improved from 4.6 ºC in 2019 to 8.4 ºC in 2020. Results of paired T-tests between both metal surfaces provided evidence of the effectiveness of module geometry on its irradiance. Thermal values were found to likely increase after applying sky view factor for similar conditions of sunlight at facades. This comparative analysis of the experimental results on a living/double wall and surfaces demonstrates the thermal behavior of a novel modular living/double wall and its potential to mitigate urban heat island in the surrounding microclimate.

9:45am - 11:15amA: Paper Session_T2: Public Health and Well-Being
Panel Moderator: Saif Haq

Built and Social Environment Impact on Covid-19 Transmission

Ming Hu, Jennifer Roberts

University of Maryland, United States of America

The goal of this research was to investigate the multifaceted interrelationships between the built and social environments and the impact of this relationship on population-level health in the context of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). More specific, this study assessed the relationship between several social determinants of health, including housing quality, living condition, travel pattern, race/ethnicity, household income, and COVID-19 outcomes in Washington, D.C (DC). Using built environment and social environment data extracted from DC energy benchmarking database and the American Community Survey database, more than 130,000 housing units were analyzed against COVID-19 case counts, death counts, mortality rate, age adjusted incidence rate and fatality rate data for DC wards. The results demonstrated that housing quality, living condition, race and occupation were strongly correlated with COVID death count.

Intentional and Unintentional Performance: Analyzing the Validity and Agency of Ancient Environmental Design on Contemporary Architecture Advancement

Sandra Maria Bernal Cordova1, Joaquin Murrieta-Saldivar2, Ivan Eladio Gaxiola Camacho1

1The University of Arizona, United States of America; 2Watershed Management Group, United States of America

Globally adverse environmental conditions, such as land degradation, lack and pollution of fresh water, and extreme temperature levels (United Nations, 2017), represent the rationale for incorporating cross-scalar and interdisciplinary knowledge, looking forward to achieving a more adaptive urban environment. Thus, in face of climate crisis due to global dilapidation of natural resources, we aim to emphasize the need to abandon arbitrary design approaches and consider the innovative concept of a resilient architecture object, a dynamic system that depends on-, and adapts to need, demand, and availability of natural resources to develop the artificial environment.

This research involves the analysis of photographic material focused on intentional and unintentional spatial elements considered as agents modifying the interaction of humans with the built environment. The goal is to reach a critical identification and re-interpretation of elements of sustainable lifestyle in vernacular architecture from ancient cultures, contemporary architecture, and a case study in Tucson Arizona. Considering the “building as a dynamic system” concept, using the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus perspective (Saundry &Ruddell, 2020) and a chronological evaluation of architectural work, trackable architectural research paths will be suggested.

Building on the work of Donella Meadows, this research will set the stage for dialogic information exchange regarding the triple bottom line - emphasizing the eco-economic decoupling. The sections are: 1.- Contextual information on the FEW nexus, and on environmental design of ancient and contemporary architecture, 2.-Results of a participant observation (methodology) and a comparative analysis aided by ancient and contemporary case studies, and 3.- Demonstrating how a local case study embraces the identification of research paths towards a more environmentally conscious architecture.

The set of images selected for depicting international and local case studies will back up the interpretation that architecture can operate through a respectful buffer zone between economic pressures and respect to the environment. Measurable aspects of performative spaces will be addressed using benchmarking information from energy certification systems, such as the USGBC’s LEED.

Far from a nostalgic design standpoint or a disapproval of technological development, by re-focusing on ancient vernacular architecture practice, this study calls for considering the possibilities of an adequate recoupling of buildings with food production, water use, and energy efficiency to improve their environmental performance, this is, examining the validity and agency of ancient environmental design elements for a more sustainable practice of contemporary architecture.


Saundry, P., & Ruddell, B. L. (2020). The Food-Energy-Water Nexus. Springer International Publishing AG.

United Nations, C. to C. D. (2017). The Global Land Outlook.

Salutogenesis + Design: Pursuing an Architecture of Wellness in an Age of Illness

Brian Sinclair

University of Calgary + sinclairstudio inc., Canada

Over the last century, our planet has become far more urbanized, with cities growing and evolving at unprecedented levels. Undeniably we find society struggling with the many crises that have arrived in recent decades. The complexity of the world, and the incomprehensible scale of some of its problems, calls for new means of understanding and operating. Incremental shifts & minor adjustments, in many ways, prove inadequate to respond to unprecedented challenges. Today’s ethos demands dramatic measures, including critically those factors influencing and impacting the health of civilization and the planet it calls home. Salutogenesis presents a method of acting + advancing, in many realms including architecture, whereby people are understood in their fullness. Taking into consideration a plethora of facets affecting our wellbeing, a salutogenic approach shifts the emphasis towards health promotion and away from disease management. Architecture’s roles in equations of health & wellness prove both profound and rich in potential.

Over recent years, and considering current crises, the architectural profession has been increasingly charged with generating building designs that promote individual wellness + public health. The definitions of health are many and diverse. That said, we are coming to understand with far greater clarity the tremendous correlations between health and the environment. Evidence linking the design of buildings and cities to positive health outcomes is significant. Studies in architecture, environmental psychology, social geography and other fields point to positive implications of well-considered and well-designed environments, including access to light, provision of clean air, incorporation of nature, reduced toxicity of materials, provision of social space, and many other design dimensions. Improved natural light can influence productivity. Views of nature can accelerate healing. Avoidance of harmful chemicals can reduce childhood illness. In many ways, the environmental design professions are now grasping design’s potential with respect to heightened health outcomes.

Medical sociologist Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) postulated, in his 1979 book ‘Health, Stress and Coping’ that a person’s ability to manage and thrive in life’s journey was related, in part, to the quality of their environments. Psychologists refer to place attachment and place identity, underscoring the remarkable influence place has in our lives. Upwards of 90% of our time, in many countries, is spent indoors, making the significance of health-promoting buildings even more urgent. Likewise, urban design and city planning are poised to better cultivate health. The present research actively explores Antonovsky’s thinking, pushing hard to consider, craft and realize strategies to foster an architecture that is in synchronization with individual and community health needs and aspirations. Deploying critical analysis of the literature, case studies, studio education and logical argumentation, the current research proffers novel, bold and potent ways of linking design to wellness. Charles Jencks (2017) stressed that “Architects and doctors both are committed to creating a better future; they project plans and cures onto the horizon and seek to persuade people of their positive outcomes.” Salutogenic design presents alternative ways of seeing, knowing and acting that can place us on a path to greater health in the built environment.

9:45am - 11:15amA: Seminar_S1: Forensic Architecture and Art of Accountability in the age of Neoliberalism

Beth Weinstein and Kaitlin Murphy, University of Arizona, Co-Moderators

A special focus seminar with Eyal Weizman of Goldsmiths, University of London.

11:15am - 11:30amBreak

Take a Tour or Visit an Exhibit

11:30am - 12:15pmB: Poster Session_P1
Panel Moderator: Jonathan Yorke Bean

The Design and Fabrication of Façade Panel Systems with Additive Manufacturing

Tanner Theisen, Niloufar Emami

Lousiana State University, United States of America

The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of additive digital fabrication techniques for customized repetitive manufacturing (CRM) as they apply to the design and fabrication of molds for precast concrete panels. These digital fabrication methods are distributed enough that they are accessible, and the elements produced through these methods can have geometrical freedom compared to those produced through traditional methods.

Volumetric concrete panels are the focal point of this study. These panels have been advancing in their design, but the general fabrication methods in practice have not been catching up with this advancement. Producing concrete panels by employing traditional mold making methods restricts the geometric possibilities of their design, while it also limits the involvement of a designer in prototyping and fabricating panels. This study proposes 3D printing molds as an alternative fabrication method for creating precast building elements.

After completing a review of precast paneling systems in over forty case studies, the design and fabrication techniques employed in each project were interrogated. Next, two case studies, namely Le Vérone Tower and The Perot Museum of Nature and Science were studied in depth. The issues of controlled variability by using 3D printed molds were tested through pushing the design aesthetics of these projects. Stereolithography (SLA) resin printing was the key process employed for recreating these panels. Considering both the available and upcoming large scale 3D printers in the industry, the results demonstrate 3D printing molds as a viable fabrication method for creating CRM parts for building construction.

Other Ways to Pay for the Public Life?

Brett Louis Snyder, N. Claire Napawan

University of California Davis, United States of America

Kresge College at the University of California Santa Cruz, originally designed in 1971 by Turnbull Associates and Charles W Moore Associates (MLTW), is well known both for its “stage set” like architecture as well as its use of environmental graphics. These graphics were designed to foster a sense of democracy and public participation. As part of a renovation and expansion led by Studio Gang Architects, we (the authors) contributed an updated wayfinding system that builds on the idea of participation while broadening it to include inhabitants’ relationship with the built and natural environment. While the original design centered on an inward facing street, the renewal connects outwards acting as a lens to the environment. The graphic strategy includes integrating graphics into materials (using bird-safe etched glass), highlighting the complex topography of the site (through large scale maps), and includes an augmented reality component allowing visitors added ways of connecting to the site (as well as the ability to see the current and original site overlaid).

Augmented reality will allow users to access various social and ecological components of the College, from being able to see more about the multi-species that are native to this environment as well as to access historical information about the original MLTW buildings. By actively creating linkages between past and present, built and natural, this wayfinding system aims to highlight the way we actively participate in shaping our environment.

Development of Window Apertures to Improve Natural Ventilation in Educational Buildings

Yun Kyu Yi, Manal Anis, Keunhyuk Jang

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America

The recent global pandemic has left bare the flaws in our infrastructure as much as in buildings. With schools re-opening, concerns for the safety and health of children have come to the forefront, as has the glaring inadequacies in air circulation in school buildings. Current practice of designing small openable window areas in educational buildings, allowing windows to open only 4-6 inches for children’s safety, along with the use of old radiators and window-mounted air-conditioning units, have rendered classrooms devoid of adequate supply of fresh air. Absence of the ASHRAE recommended 6 air changes/per hour (ACH) in many poorly funded classrooms can potentially lead to serious consequence. The Epidemic Task Force for ASHRAE has proposed some guidelines for the reopening of schools, stressing adequate supply of outside fresh air according to ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2019.

This research aims to investigate design strategies to improve air circulation through careful interventions in conventional apertures in classrooms. With clever design, airflow through existing window apertures can be augmented to maximize natural ventilation that can reduce risk of contamination by insufficient fresh air. The research aims to create a framework of design strategies that would enable an increased ventilation in a space under different wind conditions.

The learning objectives of the study are to investigate the current aperture design, understand the different conditions impacting indoor air movement through apertures, propose alternative systems based on various wind conditions, and finally test the systems through CFD analysis to validate their robustness.

Exploring Changes in Needs for Students Housing after the Pandemic

Jinoh Park

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States of America

This study explores the direction of new student housing design as students’ lifestyle changes caused by COVID-19. This study confirmed the possibility of conducting research on a new student housing development direction by reviewing a set of literature: industry trends, evidence-based design, and Post-Occupancy Evaluation on student housing.

Based on the phenomenological perspective with the combination of lived experience and POE methodologies, this research questions what changes in students’ needs for housing are after the coronavirus outbreak. This study collected data by recording the life before and after the pandemic with multiple materials according to the POE format. The collected data was analyzed by following discussion and semi-constructed interviews together. Through the analysis, this research identified changes in students’ needs and issues compared with the student housing trend 2020.

As a result, this study illustrates a set of changes in needs for students housing during the COVID-19. According to the findings, research participants need more 1) flexibility in layout, 2) private space and amenities, 3) solutions for noise issues, and 4) better delivery access. Even though it is difficult to generalize according to the limited number of study participants, the quality of this study was supplemented through multiple materials, peer-reviewed analysis, and additional interviews and discussions. Consequently, this study can be referred to when universities develop new on-campus housing or when private developers plan off-campus housing. In addition, it is reference material for student housing design projects in the architectural design studio, followed by pre-design research and evidence-based design.

Public Policies For Sustainable Social Housing In Northwest Mexico

Dania Lizeth Castro, Jose Manuel Ochoa

Maestria en Arquitectura, Universidad de Sonora

In Mexico, sustainable housing policies are proposed as an alternative to improve the quality of life of the vulnerable population and at the same time, correct the housing deficit that exists in this country due, in part, to the lack of efficient regulations for the management of the growth of cities. It is expected that by 2030, Mexico will have approximately 50 million homes and to meet their needs, it will be necessary to build almost 11 million new homes between 2011 and 2030.

However, the country's sustainable housing policies have not been a significant factor in the change towards sustainability. In contrast, they are closer to a rhetorical discourse, which remains in the passive design and use of certain technologies without considering the needs, aspirations, and conditions of accessibility for all economic strata. On the contrary, other authors point out that the programs have little time for implementation; therefore, there are no precise evaluable results, making their analysis difficult when trying to determine the strengths and weaknesses.

This research aims to compare sustainable housing programs such as "Hipoteca Verde", "Esta es tu casa" and "Sisevive-Ecocasa" implemented in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, in order to identify the quantifiable and non-quantifiable benefits to users. In addition to analyzing the tools and parameters that make them up. During the analysis of the programs, we found that "Sisevive-Ecocasa" is based on the programs "Hipoteca Verde" and "Esta es tu casa". However, unlike these, "Sisevive-Ecocasa" addresses the construction's energy efficiency based on the house's global performance, setting standards for the total energy demand, according to the prototype and the bioclimatic zone; this approach implements monitoring, reporting, and verification system for each house.

Performative Nomadicism and the No-Place

Jessica Rachel Hanzelkova

University of Waterloo, Canada

As fears of COVID-19 rose in early 2020 calls for self-isolation shifted life into the domestic realm and streets of cities around the world emptied of people. This migration into the home continues to invert the function of ‘public’ space intrapandemic, redefining them through either eerie vacancy or movement between. This project examines the no-place which counters Marc Augé’s non-place as a space of detached transience, instead locating this transience within the person encountering space. It is a distinctly nomadic theory which builds off of the work of Gilles Deleuze and Rosi Braidotti, noting an embodied sense of detachment either to place or to community as a mode of subjectivity. This subjectivity grounds the no-place perspective in a revised posthuman subject, one who is us as we contemporaneously occupy and perform as part of a diaspora, as bystanders, or as passing strangers. Employing performance art as a methodology, this project is assembled as a series of images situated within the pandemic-city. A set of eight movements carry a masked performer between streets, shops, alleyways, and parks where she lingers. Forms of transience are not only performed by the city intrapandemic, but also realized by her inhabitation of these spaces which assemble disparate fragments of her childhood memory and identity as a multiracial woman and the child of immigrants. Blips of Chinatown bookmark this exploration of the no-place, and here this detached transience becomes a place for the radical transformation of the individual within larger narratives of anonymity, identification, and inhabitation.

11:30am - 12:15pmB: Poster Session_P2
Panel Moderator: Valerian Miranda

Site Net Zero Contemporegional Architecture – The Barn Haus in Utah

Jörg Rügemer

University of Utah, United States of America

An impactful contribution to sustainability, the Barn Haus is a 3800 ft2, research-driven high-performance site net zero target home. It shows that resilient, sustainable custom buildings can be realized at high quality within market-rate budgets, which was accomplished through application of a holistic, integrated team process that explored means of passive-to-active Haus strategies, architectural minimalism, and a focus on the Genius Loci at 4,700 ft elevation.

Overseeing Salt Lake Valley, the Barn Haus is nestled into a south-facing slope at the bottom of the Rocky Mountains, offering tremendous views and perfect solar exposure. Integration into its specific location including topography, landscape, views, daylighting and passive solar heat gain potential were used for building orientation and vigilant placement of windows. Smart cut & fill, building access and passive-to active performance defined the further development. Being located on a former horse pasture allowed for an abstract formal - spatial interpretation of Utah’s traditional barn outbuildings, creating a new Utah Contemporegional architectural style that reflects a strong sense of place. Based on traditional barn elements, the building’s architectural aesthetic carefully blends with a minimal to modern, contemporary architecture approach. Focusing on formal clarity and reduction in shape and materiality, the solution recalls the straightforward functionality of agricultural buildings.

The Barn Haus was designed to be 77% efficient over the Utah required code standard (and before the installalation of photovoltaics), with the operational energy required to be offset by its 6.4 kW photovoltaic system. It goes through an extensive POM phase until 2022.

Assessment Of Housing And Urban Context From An Aging In Place Framework And Its Impact In The Quality Of Life Of Older Adults.

Margarita Ibarra Platt, Maria Guadalupe Alpuche Cruz

Universidad de Sonora, Mexico

Demographic aging is a phenomenon more present every day in cities around the world. In the case of Mexico and most Latin American countries, this is happening at such a fast rate that it will demand action in many scenarios, like urban planning and residential offer.

With a growing population of older adults, the need to have age friendly environments (homes, neighborhoods and cities) becomes more relevant each day. This population has special needs in matters of accessibility, safety, health and mobility, which is why the place they call home needs to be an ally and support healthy aging and not become an obstacle.

In this context, this work aims to study how adequate the urban and housing context is for aging-in-place according to the perception of older adults.

By a method of observing the urban context of selected zones with a higher percentage of older adults, it is expected to determine its age-friendliness, and compare this information with the results of a survey applied to older adults living in these areas.

Some of the first findings are that more than 20% of all older adults in Hermosillo, live in a specific area of the city, showing age grouping patterns and therefore making it more important that these zones are age friendly.

Knowing what older adults consider important in their living spaces can help prioritize actions to improve future planning of cities, housing and public space design and also to improve conditions for present day older adults aging in place.

The Sound Pavilion

Rachel Dickey

University of North Carolina Charlotte, United States of America

The Sound Pavilion is a prototype developed to demonstrate how sound performance can drive the conceptual agenda for a project by articulating the conditions of spatial experience through the design of architectural surface. The pavilion demonstrates the capacity of typical architectural materials to preserve and direct elements of sound from the speakers through reflection, while also reducing exterior noise through diffusion. These components provide a design opportunity to articulate space through change in sound volume and quality. The two acoustical tools that manipulate the conditions of spatial audio in the pavilion design include surface diffusion and form based reflection.

In order to demonstrate the architectural expression of acoustics with the pavilion, the design team collaborated with a musician to compose various corresponding tracks played from different channeled speakers embedded in key geometrically altering sound panels. This collaboration activates the pavilion as an architectural instrument, which generates a unique auditory experience based on the guests' proximity in and around it.

Energy Performance Evaluation in the Design Process of Façade-Integrated Green Living Walls Using Digital Simulation

Tazrin Islam, Ute Poerschke, Yasmine Abbas

Pennsylvania State university, United States of America

The study proposes a digital simulation-based workflow for assessing the energy performance of façade-integrated green walls to support the current practice of empirical knowledge-based intuitive design. The study focuses on “living walls,” which are a specific type of green walls where the plant, substrate and structural support are directly integrated with the building wall. The thermal potential of vegetation-integrated walls varies with climate type and context requiring case-by-case assessment for informed decision making.

Due to the complex biological properties of vegetation, building information modeling (BIM) or building energy performance simulation (BEPS) programs do not yet include specific assessment tools for green walls limiting the scope of the performance-based evaluation. Most studies on thermal benefits are experimental or mathematical model-based which are not suitable for architects and designers. Few studies used building simulation programs where various modeling techniques are self-developed by researchers due to the lack of dedicated simulation tools. These studies are rarely combined with digital design platforms such as BIM or 3D modeling. In this regard, within the limitations of the current simulation tools, this study adopts the ‘Green-roof’ module of the widely used simulation engine Energy-Plus based on previous studies as this plug-in includes plant properties. Then the impact of variable changes in a living wall such as plant leaf area index, substrates, moisture and façade design aspects such as ratio, placement, and orientation of the living wall in a design case.

The aim is to incorporate scientific research findings with a digital design platform using BIM and BEPS programs together.

Pilot Test of an Instrument for Vulnerability Assessment in Mexican Regulation, Case Study: Pharmaceutical Cleanroom

Fernando Arvayo-Ballesteros, Óscar Preciado-Pérez

Universidad de Sonora, Mexico

Uncertainties arise when a norm or standard is ambiguous, unrigorous, or unwieldy. This must be resolved immediately to avoid failures in the decision-making process. This investigation is aimed to quantify in a qualitative way, the extent of vulnerability in the standard for Pharmaceutical cleanrooms in the Mexican Regulation. To achieve this, the development of an instrument to facilitate comparison between standards was proposed.

Therefore, the theoretical framework provided by risk theory and the concept of vulnerability is a good point of departure, as well as a multidisciplinary approach. According to several authors, risk can be estimated by combining three variables: exposure, hazard, and vulnerability. At this point, vulnerability is resumed as an independent variable to evaluate, by modelling an instrument, the endogenous and exogenous stressors that a norm or standard imposes on a physical system, in this case, the pharmaceutical cleanroom.

Implementing the basic content analysis method, literature review led to building a verification instrument comprising more than 500 indicators. Following a detailed analysis, the list was shortened into 32 items for a feasible and yet confident instrument. The indicators proposed were well validated by experts. Subsequent to the application of the test-standard reliability method, the indicator for the extent of enforceability achieved a Krippendorff's alpha of 0.76, and a Gwet AC2 of 0.98. Additionally, proposed indices and indicators as well as frequencies are analysed. This provides a mapping of potential sources of regulatory vulnerability that can affect a pharmaceutical cleanroom, based on interdisciplinary interpretations of this high-tech architectural space.

11:30am - 12:15pmB: Workshop_W2: NSF Grant Success Information Session
Panel Moderator: Rahman Azari

Lawrence Bank, Research Faculty, Georgia Institute of Technology

A presentation by Larry Bank of Georgia Tech describing the process for securing an NSF grant, from communications with NSF Program Directors to qualifications, impact and proposal submission. Q&A session to folow. 

11:30am - 12:15pmB: Workshop_W3: Publishing with Routledge Press
Panel Moderator: Philip Plowright

Fran Ford, Senior Editor and Publisher (Architecture), Routledge Press, London

A presentation by Routledge Press describing the process for publishing a book, from proposal submission to editorial assessment, peer review, contracts, timelines and manuscript delivery. Q&A session to follow. 

12:15pm - 12:30pmBreak

Grab and Go Lunch from your very own Refrigerator!

12:30pm - 1:30pmARCC Annual Business Meeting

Presentation of ARCC Mission, Organization, Budget, Programs and Opportunities

1:30pm - 1:45pmBreak

Network with a cup of 'home-made' Coffee!

1:45pm - 3:15pmC: Paper Session_C2: Bio-Design, Linguistics and Social Change
Panel Moderator: Laura Holden Hollengreen

Towards a Post-Anthropocene Bio-Design Practice

Assia Stefanova

Newcastle University, United Kingdom

The paper seeks to identify two different epistemological approaches within bio-design that have emerged as a result of historical and scientific influences, which are differentiated by methodological, linguistic, and ethical factors. The paper examines how such differences impact the design process and a framework for eco-centric design thinking is proposed.

Biological processes and living organisms have entered the fields of architecture and design, offering new solutions to ecological problems. In employing other species within the built environment, ethical implications for working with living organisms arise. The attitudes and methods adopted within the field of bio-design can be traced back to our historical relationship with nature. Humanity’s views on nature and the environment were radically redefined during the Enlightenment, adopting a mechanistic framework, depriving nature of its agency through a virulent rejection of mysticism, animism, and the Earth Mother image. These views were strengthened by the Industrial Revolution and later, 20th century practices enabled mass production and gluttonous use of finite natural resources. Within design, these mechanistic principles have been applied in the field of bio-technology that is at the service of humanity, being integrated into the built environment in a similar way to inanimate matter. At the other end of the spectrum lies a non-anthropocentric bio-design practice that is based upon pre-Enlightenment thinking and the shift in rhetoric brought about by research into animal sentience, symbiosis and Gaia theory, which highlights human participation in complex interspecies networks. This ecological discourse postulates new modes of thinking within the field of design, placing humanity within a multitude of interdependent relationships, highlighting the need for human responsibility towards living organisms in the built environment and bringing forth a different set of ethical considerations within bio-design practice.

Utterances and Similes: An Exploration of Participation and Linguistics in Architecture

Noémie Despland-Lichtert, Brendan Sullivan Shea

Texas Tech University, Lubbock, United States of America

In 1955, philosopher and linguist John Langshaw Austin coined the concept of "performative utterance", a form of speech that both includes a call for action and a transformation of reality. This type of short sentence is both describing reality and, simultaneously, changing it through the power of speech. Another figure of speech, comparing two different things by explicitly highlighting their similarities, is known as the simile. This paper explores how the concept of performative utterance and simile can be applied to architecture, to comprehend interactive, participatory, and durational “performative spaces”. The paper asks: how a space can intrinsically call for its own transformation? How can an environment explicitly respond and transform itself through interaction and participation? What is the meaning of a simile in architecture? What is the role of Architecture Curating? In this paper, we investigate performative projects—those calling for action and triggering their own transformation through users' participation—by examining a series of interactive, transformative, and durational spaces and curatorial projects. Ultimately, we argue that the ephemeral and interactive nature of performative spaces serves to transfer agency from architects and curators to audiences, including new spectators and users, inclusive participants, and activators, therefore creating an expanded cultural dialogue and critical discourse for the discipline of architecture.

New Reality. New Architecture.

Salah Imam1, Brian Sinclair2

1School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Calgary + McFarlane Biggar architects inc., Canada; 2School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Calgary + sinclairstudio inc., Canada

The last few decades can be characterized, socially and physically, by rapid shifts and intense impacts. Climate changes year after year, as does advanced technology and human behaviour. Environmental catastrophes and infectious outbreaks—such as global warming and COVID-19—force the re-forming of entire cities and regions, imposing high human and economic costs. The built environment cannot keep up with these deviations—rather it simply, in best case scenarios, endeavour to limit damages. Through our ongoing research into flexible architecture, particularly in residential projects, the most common perceptions have expensive and negative connotations. For many industry professionals, flexible design has been branded as costly, difficult to deploy, and demanding state-of-the-art gadgetry. Such views have been driven, in part, by technical attempts to future proof buildings through the application of specific parameters such as movable partitions or pursuing over-engineering.

Why then, after more than a century of attempts to design for flexibility, the issue is still marginalized to the profession at large? Through synthesizing of the existing literature, it became obvious that design approaches have focused primarily on physical flexibility. This overly narrow approach leaves the user and the environment out of the equation, leading to inevitable failure of the built-environment’s capacity to respond to social or environmental changes. The present research argues that achieving flexible buildings demands a more balanced and integrated approach, namely the pursuit and realization of Agile Architecture. A re-conceptualization is needed that goes beyond matters of durability to more nuanced views of buildings as socialized products constantly in the making and always responding to a milieu of change.

The authors’ initial impressions reveal limited studies about architecture that responds to change, expressed in generalized texts and case studies. Through comprehensive review, it is apparent that the subject of change in architecture is not only linguistically disjointed but offers little critical reflection on what had been proposed and/or built. In responding to that realization, the present research contextualizes the gap by underlining the industry mindset (via a survey to illuminate contextual barriers against formulating/implementing such an innovative approach) and studying current residential design practices (via seminal cases of projects strategically drawn from global cities, illustrating progressive concepts within the design, legislative and/or financial ethos). The paper positions Agile Architecture in the context of environmental, social and economic sustainability, then delineates progress along a multifaceted journey that aspires to dramatically reconsider the way we design buildings.

In many respects, this research is about the future, about changing conservative design thinking where ideas are at best variations of the status quo. The unprecedented consequences of COVID-19 and climate change, mark what the authors see as the beginning of the end of traditional architecture design. Incongruously, almost every traditional AEC organization, while trying to figure out its place in this changing world, is stubbornly trying to build a bulwark to protect old models that can’t possibly survive the sea of change under way. Thus, from the authors’ perspective, if change is the new problem; Agility is the new solution.

1:45pm - 3:15pmC: Paper Session_O1: Performative Health, Biophilism and Well-Being
Panel Moderator: Susannah Dickinson

Situating Access and Breaking Boundaries: Holistic Responsivity as a Provocation

Bushra Hashim, Brian Robert Sinclair

School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Calgary, Canada

Contemporary society, including architecture, urbanism, and city planning, stands at a vital juncture. Calls for heightened equity amidst growing diversity offer an unprecedented opportunity to reconsider design thinking. A part of this equation pertains to the ways that users address and operate within the built environment moving past mobility, to include people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Intellectual disabilities have been understood historically with the manifestation of intellectual ableism within the built environment. Current design research and practice under-represent intellectual disabilities, affirming the need for innovating architectural solutions that encourage inclusion and participation. The present paper argues that design equity and spatial engagement needs to be addressed in broader ways to cover crucial cognition encounters and sensorial experiences of these (and all) users. Holistic Responsivity is thus a term coined by the authors to convey the notion that designers shoulder serious responsibility for creating built environments that are responsive across the wide-ranging abilities of users. It is proposed as a provocation of the status quo, an expansion in the catchment in critique of current universal design’s one-size-fits-all approach to accessibility. Informed by neuroarchitecture, agile architecture, and cybernetics [NAAC], Holistic Responsivity provides a conceptual framework that can be applied to design processes. This research is consolidated through case studies, primary data collection via three survey methods, and action-based research. Collected data will, downstream, be qualitatively analyzed through content, narrative, and discourse analysis to understand the experiences of people with cognitive disabilities and perceived barriers in the built environment, and how disability is perceived within architectural practice and education. Through logical argumentation, this methodology unites primary and secondary research towards experiential equity, finally proposing new design guidelines that are more responsive, resilient, and responsible. Ultimately, the goal is to support and enhance the user's agency, the performance of the environment, and the optimization of experience. The design of our everyday spaces and places need to ensure all users are more abled, not less disabled.

Performative Views in Architecture: Preference, Composition, and Occupant’s wellbeing.

Ihab Elzeyadi

University of Oregon, United States of America

A substantial portion of the world population spends a minimum of 40 hours weekly in indoor office environments and almost 90% of their time indoors. A fact that placed a significant importance to outdoor views in work environments as a mean for occupants to maintain connections to nature and the outdoors. Previous studies have attributed a positive correlation between the presence of nature components in outdoor views and occupant’s satisfaction, physiological benefits, mental health, shorter postoperative hospital stays, lower medication dosages, better mood, lower job stress, and reduced churn rates. Despite the favorability of this evidence, the composition of view attributes and components that lead to these positive effects have not been adequately investigated yet. Most previous studies concentrated on the comparisons of views of nature verses urban views preferences, yet failed to acknowledge the complex dimension of view parameters and the percentages of elements of nature within a view, such as percentage of sky area, ground cover, trees and shrubs. Similarly, the type, quality, and composition of urban views have not been adequately investigated. Moreover, most previous studies failed to develop a view metric to both quantify and evaluate different views or a scale to predict their impact separately or collectively on occupant’s wellbeing.

This study attempts to answer an important yet unsearched question related to the performative aspects of views and their composition. It also attempts to quantify view preference by developing a metric for view performance and testing its impacts on occupant’s wellbeing. The study employed a cross-sectional sorting task survey design to assess view quality outside offices. Data was collected from 125 office participants-- who were given 12 images that contain different views compositions--accessible from their offices, which vary from the extreme views of nature to extreme urban views. View compositions varied in content and magnitude, including nature components, architectural styles, dynamic elements, and view depth. Participants were asked to rank the different views using a Q-sorting task procedure. In addition, daylighting levels and quality inside the different offices were measured and analyzed to evaluate the interaction between lighting and views on occupants’ satisfaction and comfort levels.

This is an inquiry that attempts to answer and quantify a long debated hypothesis regarding the importance non-residential building occupants place on the need to be in contact with nature and the outdoors (the biophilia hypothesis) while working within a building. Results suggest that common classifications of views into two types, views of nature verses urban views, is misleading and does not realistically represent the typical content of views. Instead, a scaled dimension and metric to evaluate views based on their composition is more accurate as it offers a predictive power to measure the performative aspects of views. Of equal importance is the power of the metric to predict the impact of views on occupant’s wellbeing. Findings provide an evidence-based guideline to design a better view for occupant’s in work environments from the inside out as well as from the outside in.

Biophilic Net-Positive Architecture: Integrating Nature, Health, Wellbeing and Passive Design

Mary Guzowski

University of Minnesota, United States of America

The energy, carbon, and environmental benefits of net-positive design have received much attention, but less so the health, wellbeing, and experiential promises. Architects Pamela Mang and Bill Reed suggest that the definition of “net-positive” should be expanded to “buildings that ‘add value’ to ecological systems and generate more than they need to fulfil their own needs’ moves net-positive beyond simply a technical challenge . . . [by including] benefits to the systemic capability to generate, sustain and evolve the life of a particular place (Mang and Reed, 2014, 1)”. Could a biophilic approach to net-positive architecture provide an expanded understanding of health and wellbeing for humans, other species and the planet? Architect Stephen Kellert identified biophilic design as the “largely missing link” in sustainable design: “Without positive benefits and associated attachment to buildings and places, people rarely exercise responsibility or stewardship to keep them in existence over the long run….Low-environmental-impact and biophilic design must, therefore, work in complementary relation to achieve true and lasting sustainability (Kellert et al., 2008, 5)”. This paper discusses a seven-week graduate architecture studio that explored the potential “added value” of a biophilic approach to net-positive architecture, using the Architecture 2030 Energy Design Hierarchy and Terrapin’s 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design to address the design, programmatic, performance, and experiential dimensions of biophilic net-positive architecture (Architecture 2030, 2020; Terrapin 2014). Integrated biophilic net-positive architectural goals, strategies, performance metrics, and tools will be discussed to support human and ecological health and wellbeing.


Kellert, Stephan R., Heerwagan, Judith H., and Mador, Martin L. 2008. Biophilic Design, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Terrapin Bright Green. 2014. Terrapin’s 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design,, 4.

1:45pm - 3:15pmC: Paper Session_T3: Design Integrated CFD and Energy Performance
Panel Moderator: Adil Sharag-Eldin

A Framework for the Integration of CFD into the Early Stages of Architectural Design

Soo Jeong Jo1,2, Jim Jones1

1Virginia Tech, United States of America; 2Louisiana State University, United States of America

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) refers to computational methods to predict the movement of fluids, e.g. air, around and through objects. Due to its efficiency, CFD has been widely used since the 1970s in various fields including aerospace engineering and the automobile industry. More recently, it is being applied to architecture since airflow analysis has become an important issue while the shapes and the interior layouts of many modern buildings have become complex, making it difficult to intuitively predict airflow in and around a building. Although CFD can be helpful in predicting airflow in relation to architectural design, the users of CFD in the building industry tend to be limited to researchers or consulting engineers. It may be desirable to make CFD analysis more accessible to architectural designers throughout the whole design process. However, the current literature related to CFD implementation in architecture mostly focuses on a single domain of decision-making, such as wind load analysis, rather than the comprehensive design process. The present study aims to show how CFD can be utilized throughout the architectural design process and how the airflow simulations can interact with the dynamics of design thinking. This research will suggest an implementation framework that can be expanded to different architectural projects while supporting architectural designers to utilize CFD simulation in the early stages of design. To achieve this goal, a design project was selected and developed in the following order: pre-design, site interpretation, massing, and façade design. Airflow simulations were conducted for each design step, and the details of the simulation process were tracked using a reflective practitioner approach. Furthermore, the design decision-making processes in interaction with the CFD simulation results were observed and documented. These works ultimately will open a discussion about how CFD can be effectively used for architectural design in a broader perspective.

Integrating Parametric Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to Maximize Electricity Generation from Pavilion

Yun Kyu Yi, Keunhyuk Jang, Andrew Chun-An Wei, Bhujon Kang, Manal Anis

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America

It is common knowledge that one source of renewable energy can’t replace fossil fuel and it is necessary to adopt various renewable technologies. However, wind energy was not fully utilized. It is typically installed coastline or open rural areas and has a limited application that can be found near the urban area. The paper is developing a new design strategy to find an aerodynamic form of a pavilion that is optimized to generate on-site electricity with attached wind turbines.

Wind farms built in rural areas have the issue of energy losses and infrastructure like the cable construction expense for connecting from wind farms to cities is hard to avoid. Also, recently wind farms in open fields confronted with the waste problem. The blades are made of a pliable mix of resin and fiberglass. Decommissioned blades are also notoriously difficult and expensive to transport. They can be anywhere from 100 to 300 feet long and need to be cut up on-site before getting trucked away on specialized equipment.

For this reason, the paper is interest to investigate possible structures that can generate electricity in the urban area on a small scale. However, it is very difficult to utilize wind turbines around an urban area, because of the negative opinion on the appearance of wind turbines [4].

The paper proposes a structure that hides a wind turbine and able to generate electricity from wind. However, the most significant limitation of wind turbine applications in urban areas can be found in its complexity with surrounding site conditions. Unlike the open field, where no obstructions are nearby, it is comparatively easy to find the proper orientation of the turbine should face maximizing generating electricity. Since ground-level wind speed and directions vary by location, turbulent, low-velocity wind conditions it is difficult to design a wind turbine near an urban area. For that reason, further research must consider site-specific wind conditions that able to find better orientation, and the shape of the structure must be found.

The paper integrates advanced computational tools to find a form that maximizes electricity generation. Based on a parametric (Non-uniform rational basis spline, NURBS) modeling, the various geometries will be generated and passed to the (Computational Fluid Dynamics) to find a more site-specific wind condition for the whole year around. These performance outcomes are passed to the evaluation process where the objective functions determine whether the geometry satisfies the goal. If the objective function values don’t meet the requirements, the next population is generated based on the selection process and passed to parametric modeling to generate a new structure to evaluate the next generation’s performance. This loop continues until the goal is reached.

The outcome of the paper is demonstrating a design method that integrates different computational tools to find geometry that able to maximize site-specific wind potential to generate electricity and overcome the certain limitation of installing wind turbines close to urban areas.

Energy Performance Of Solar- Reflective Building Envelope On Retail Strip Malls - a Case Study

Roja Rastegar, Jae Chang

University of Kansas-School of Architecture & Design, United States of America


In the United States as with many other countries, building energy consumption has dramatically increased over the past decade due to population growth, increased demand for indoor environmental quality, and global climate change. One of the goals of architectural design is to provide indoor conditions where individuals can carry out their daily activities in a comfortable energy efficient environment. Space conditioning which is greatly impacted by heat transfer through the building envelope makes up a major portion of a building’s energy consumption. One method of minimizing heat transfer and reducing solar heat gain is by optimizing the building envelope thermal performance. This can be accomplished by increasing the R-value through more insulation. However, increasing insulation in existing buildings is more difficult than with new construction. Several studies have shown that surface treatments and application of solar-reflective coatings can reduce the solar absorption rate of a building envelope, which may result in the reduction of cooling load in summer.

This paper presents the findings of a study that examined the effectiveness of improving the thermal performance of existing building envelopes without adding thickness to the walls with additional insulation but instead with a thin exterior solar-reflective coating. EnergyPlus was used to simulate the thermal performance of a case study retail strip mall in four different climate zones in the United States. The simulation was performed for two building envelope conditions in each zone. The first condition was without surface treatment and the second condition was with a solar-reflective coating with a solar reflectance value of 0.6. Results showed potential energy savings between 0-10% depending on the climate zone. The hot-humid climate achieved the most energy savings while climate zone with cold winters saw no energy benefits and instead were penalized with increased heating.


Energy saving, solar reflectance, solar absorption, building envelope

3:15pm - 3:30pmBreak

Take a Tour or Visit an Exhibit

Session Chair: Courtney Crosson
Session Chair: Clare Robinson

Peggy Deamer is Professor Emerita of Yale University’s School of Architecture and principal in the firm of Deamer, Studio. She is the founding member of the Architecture Lobby, a group advocating for the value of architectural design and labor. She is the editor of Architecture and Capitalism: 1845 to the Present and author of Architecture and Labor.

This keynote talk is structured into three parts, each of which addresses three facets of political production/architectural performance: first, an analysis of how architecture is organized as a profession; second, an exploration of how architecture is organized as a discipline; and, third, an introduction to an activist organization trying to perform architecture differently.

The first section analyzes how our architectural profession in the US is organized through three aspects of our professional structure. The first of these deals with the concept of professionalism and its origins in the 19th century, its transformation in the 20th century, and current critiques of professionalism in our current socio-economic structure. The second deals with the AIA as our particular professional organization, suggesting the structural attributes that make it weak - structures both externally and self-imposed. The third looks at professional architectural organizations in other countries to see what the AIA might learn from them as well as what we, as architectural citizens, learn about the embeddedness of our profession in national hegemonies.

The second section explores how architecture is organized as a discipline, and specifically examines how our architectural education prepares us for a marginalized and unrewarding profession. It looks at three culprits of the academic construct. The first is its 19th century, Beaux-Arts approach to architectural education that emphasizes aesthetic virtuosity, individuality, and heroic programs. Its associated perspective identifies design teaching that, in the Beaux-Arts model, disengages “design” from social, economic, and political issues is the second culprit. And the final aspect focuses on the way we “perform” pedagogical instruction – a performance of intimate hierarchy.

The third section introduces an activist organization—the Architecture Lobby—and looks at the Architecture Lobby’s efforts to work-around capitalist, developer-driven forces which lead to our performing unsatisfying and unrewarding work. Amongst the issues discussed are efforts at unionization, cooperativization, and the role of architectural labor in the Green New Deal.

This analysis of the profession, exploration of the academic discipline and discussion of an activist organization will conclude with thoughts on what is really at the center of “performing” architecture.

5:00pm - 6:00pmLounge

BYOB (bring your own beverage)


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